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At how many weeks will cannabis seeds show sex

Cannabis Gender: How to Tell if Your Plant is Male or Female

While it is common to hear that cannabis “grows like a weed,” there is much more to cultivating quality cannabis than just planting it and letting nature do the rest. From nutrients to pest control and everything in between, there is a lot to learn about growing cannabis. When growing from seed vs. a clone, one of the most crucial things you need to be aware of is how to tell a male cannabis plant from a female. Let’s take a look at why sexing your cannabis plant before flowering is essential to growing high quality bud.

Why the Sex of Your Cannabis Plant is Important

It will take roughly between four to six weeks for signs of gender to appear on a cannabis plant, as this is when pre-flowers typically begin to develop. Depending on the strain, environment, and grower, it is possible to see definitive signs of male or female gender before four weeks; however, it can sometimes take even longer for clear signs of gender to show. You should start to look for signs of gender as soon as the seedling begins to grow, because it is essential to promptly separate males from females. There are actually three variations of gender when it comes to cannabis plants: male, female, and hermaphrodite (commonly known as “hermied”).

Female Cannabis Plants

The buds (or flower as it is often called) found in dispensaries come from female cannabis plants. Female cannabis plants produce cannabinoid-rich buds and have a much higher THC concentration than male plants. Females often offer a rich terpene profile along with a plethora of other cannabinoids and phytonutrients. The buds from female cannabis plants that have not been pollinated by male plants are seedless or have minimal seeds. This allows the plant to produce bigger, fatter, and more potent buds and is why it is so important to separate males from females when cultivating flower for medicinal purposes. This form of cannabis is commonly called “sinsemilla,” which translates to “seedless” in Spanish. Female cannabis plants are the desired gender for commercial and home growers alike.

Male Cannabis Plants

Male plants are not as sought after when it comes to utilizing cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes, because they don’t produce buds. However, breeders and manufacturers of cannabis-derived products rely upon male cannabis plants for pollinating female plants when crossing genetics to create new strains (such as indica vs sativa). The fiber of male plants is also utilized to make clothing, bed linens, towels, and other products. Additionally, the seeds from male plants can be used to create various oils.

Because male cannabis plants are responsible for pollinating females, it is essential to identify and isolate male plants from females, so they do not “hermie,” switch gender, or begin to produce seeds because of spontaneous and unwanted pollination.

Hermaphrodite Plants

When a cannabis plant switches gender and “hermies” due to pollination, whether intentional or not, it will have both female and male sex organs. Pollination isn’t the only cause of a hermaphrodite plant. Aspects such as light and water stress as well as nutrient deficiencies can all cause a plant to “hermie.” If you are not looking to create seeds or new strains of cannabis, it is essential that you also isolate any hermaphrodite plants from your female plants. Some also choose to remove the male organs from these plants, often utilizing tweezers, in hopes of still producing sinsemilla.

Now that you have a better understanding of why knowing the sex of your cannabis plant is essential, let’s explore some of the common gender signs that develop before the plant begins flowering that you should be on the lookout for. These are the signs that will ultimately tell you the gender of your plants.

Cannabis Gender Signs Before the Plants Begin Flowering

Male and female cannabis plants have distinct “pre-flower” characteristics. Pre-flower stands for the period of cultivation in which the plants have not yet begun to produce flowers/buds. During this stage, it is essential to pay very close attention to the nodes of your cannabis plants to determine gender. The cannabis gender signs that you should start to see pre-flower are detailed below:

Male Plant Signs to Look for Pre-Flower

Male plants begin to show their gender earlier than females on most occasions. Male pre-flowers are known to appear around three to four weeks post-germination. At this time, the plant typically has at least five internodes. The male organ and pre-flowers are pollen sacs that show up as tiny balls on the nodes of the plant. Sometimes, they have a banana-like shape that is often present when the plant is a hermaphrodite rather than a genuine male. These ball-like organs on male cannabis plants produce pollen and later grow together into clusters of male flowers or male buds. However, these male buds are small and are not as desirable as their female counterparts.

Female Plant Signs to Look for Pre-Flower

Female cannabis plants tend to start showing pre-flower signs around the four to six week range post-germination (a little later than male plants). Female pre-flowers look like a V-shaped pair of white hairs that form out of the calyx to make up the pistil, which will later form clusters to create female flowers or female buds. These are the pre-flower signs that most growers desire. For this reason, they often choose to germinate feminized seeds, which you can learn more about below.

Gender of Cannabis Seeds

Unfortunately, there is no definitive way to tell whether a cannabis seed will produce a male, female, or hermaphrodite plant. On the market today, you can find what are known as feminized seeds from reputable stores or growers. Breeders have bred these seeds to eliminate the male chromosomes; in return, they produce primarily female plants.

Sometimes known as female seeds, this form of cannabis seed is highly sought after by cultivators looking to grow cannabis buds to smoke or for extraction purposes. This is especially true in commercial grows as one single male plant could pollinate a massive crop of females and cause an enormous loss for the company. Keep in mind that even with feminized seeds, there is a very slight chance that a male plant will germinate from those seeds. Whether using regular seeds or feminized seeds, this is another reason why it is essential to consistently look for signs of gender changes even into the late flowering stage of cultivation.

Now that you have a firm understanding of the plant genders and pre-flower signs, it’s worth reviewing the different parts that make up the cannabis plant

Parts of a Cannabis Plant

The cannabis plant is made up of many different parts that allow the plant to grow to perfection as nature intended. Many of these parts are similar to that of other plant species, while others are cannabis-specific.

Seeds

Cannabis seeds, which can be purchased from various online retailers and physical stores, are the source of cannabis’ existence. Seeds are necessary in order to continue the various genetic lineages of cannabis chemovars available today. In a cannabis plant, seeds can be located within calyxes and male buds.

Cotyledon Leaves

Cotyledon leaves are the very first leaves formed after seed germination. They can be found at the top of the newly germinated cannabis plant’s stem. Many, however, do not consider these leaves to be true leaves. Instead, they refer to them as “seed leaves,” as they are part of the seed anatomy rather than a leaf produced by the plant post-germination.

Roots

The roots of cannabis plants, like other plants, are the life source of the plant. They absorb water, nutrients and oxygen from within the grow medium being utilized (soil, coco coir, clay pebbles, etc.). The roots are always located at the bottom of the cannabis plant’s stem.

Stem

The stem of a cannabis plant is at the center of the plant’s anatomy. Sometimes known as the stalk, its central location provides support for branches, leaves, and cannabis buds. The stem consists of a vascular system that brings water and nutrients from the roots and growth medium to other parts of the plant.

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Branches

Branches are located from top to bottom of cannabis plants and exist in locations where nodes form on the main stem. New stem structures “branch” out from the main stalk/stem of the plant. In addition to the stem, branches support leaves and flowers.

Node

Nodes form at the point where leaves grow from the main stem and branch out. They partition the stem into various branches. In the beginning cultivation stages, they are parallel and become more irregular throughout the plant’s growth cycle. The node is also the location where marijuana plants show their pre-flower gender signs, which are responsible for producing plant hormones.

Fan Leaves

Fan leaves are the large, fingered leaves that form on cannabis branches and have become a major symbol in cannabis culture. While they are not a source of trichomes, terpenes, or cannabinoids, they still serve a crucial purpose in the plant’s anatomy. They are essential for photosynthesis and consist of the dorsal surface, apex, ventral surface, and petiole, all of which work together to help the plant to grow to fruition.

Sugar Leaves

Sugar leaves are the small leaves that grow from cannabis buds/flowers. These leaves are much smaller than fan leaves. They are typically covered in a layer of trichomes and packed with cannabinoid content near the end of the flowering stage of cultivation. Sugar leaves are often used by patients and consumers to make cannabis-infused edibles at home and can be found in “shake/trim” ounces found in dispensaries across the country.

Flowers or Buds

Cannabis buds are essentially the flowers produced by the cannabis plant. For this reason, you may hear the words “flower” and “bud” used interchangeably. Cannabis flowers form up and down the stem and branches of a female cannabis plant. These are the most sought after part of the plant, because they contain the most terpene and cannabinoid concentration (including CBD and THC). Note that before being utilized, the flower must be properly dried and cured.

Cola

Colas are found towards the top of a female plant’s main stem and largest branches. The cola consists of tightly woven buds that form a central cluster of cannabis flowers, some upwards of two feet in length. Colas develop in areas that receive the most light exposure, and they contain the highest concentration of cannabinoids and plant resins.

Bract and Calyx

Each female flower is produced from a single ovule, and bracts are small leaves that surround and protect the ovule. Bracts are covered in a high concentration of resin glands known as trichomes (which we go over below).

At the base of cannabis flowers, you will find a translucent layer that protects the ovule. That is the calyx of a cannabis plant. It is also where pistils grow to catch pollen. Bracts are sometimes incorrectly identified as a calyx.

Stigma and Pistil

A stigma is a sticky, hair-like structure that grows at the top of the pistils of the cannabis flower. It is also where pollen is collected from male marijuana plants. Stigmas are known to change color as the cannabis plant matures. They often start as white hairs before going through a spectrum of yellow to red and eventually turning brown around harvest. The pistils provide protection for the female reproductive organs of the plant (including the ovules and potential seeds).

Trichomes

Not to be confused with stigmas or pistils, trichomes are microscopic mushroom-shaped hairs that form the frosty layer of crystals on cannabis flower. They mainly grow on the buds/flowers, sugar leaves, and bracts of marijuana plants. Each trichome is made up of a stalk and head. Within the head of the trichome, the production of cannabinoids and terpenes takes place. Trichomes are responsible for the sticky resin that binds to your finger when you handle cannabis. They also serve as a defense mechanism against environmental threats and wild animals. When dried post-harvest and removed from cannabis flowers, they are known as kief.

Final Takeaway

When you are new to cannabis cultivation, many aspects can be intimidating. One of those is sexing your cannabis plants. We hope that this guide helps you feel more confident with this process, which is sure to become second nature to you after just a few grows! As a recap, here are the three key things you need to remember when determining the gender of your cannabis plants:

  1. Start looking for signs early, as soon as four to six weeks post-germination for female plants.
  2. Destroy or separate males and hermies from female plants immediately upon identification.
  3. Stay vigilant! Gender signs can develop earlier and change during harvest.

Want more tips and tricks regarding cannabis cultivation? Veriheal is here to help! Below you can find a list of several articles we have compiled to help you on your at-home cultivation journey.

Cannabis Pre-Flowers: Identify Sex of a Plant as Early as 3 Weeks Old (with pics!)

The female plants will soon produce pistils. Wispy white hairs are a sure sign that you’re looking at female pre-flowers.

How to Determine the Sex of a Young Cannabis Plant

What are cannabis “pre-flowers?” They are little versions of adult flowers that appear on your marijuana plants relatively early in the vegetative stage.

When I first started growing weed, I learned (incorrectly) that there is no way to determine a cannabis plant’s sex until the flowering stage. But I’ve since learned that pre-flowers can reveal the plant’s sex while it’s still in the vegetative stage! Cannabis plants grow pre-flowers as young as 3-4 weeks from germination for male plants, and 4-6 weeks from germination for female plants.

Cannabis Pre-Flowers Are Small Versions of Adult Flowers. These reveal a plant’s sex.

Knowing the plant’s sex is helpful because most hobbyist cannabis growers would like to identify and remove male plants from the grow room early in the growing process. This is because only female plants make potent buds/flowers, while male cannabis plants make non-potent pollen sacs where female plants would grow buds. Additionally, female buds need to avoid pollen from male plants in order to make the highest quality cannabis (sinsemilla or “no seeds”).

Cannabis pre-flowers appear at the base of leaves when male plants are about 3-4 weeks old, and female plants are 4-6 weeks old.

Even if you’re not 100% sure about every plant from looking at the pre-flowers, it’s nice to know which plants you need to watch closely and which are definitely female. However, if precision is very important…

Chemical Leaf Tests Can Determine Sex & Potency for plants as young as 1-3 weeks

Chemical leaf testing is getting less expensive every day and can be used on cannabis seedlings with just a few sets of leaves to test for sex and future potency.

These tests only require a tiny amount of plant tissue (for example a small punch-out from a leaf, or a single cotyledon leaf), so it won’t hurt or slow down your seedlings to take a test sample!

In general, the tests are available for seedlings as young as 1-3 weeks. Sex testing uses a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test, and potency tests use Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID) or High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with a Diode Array Detector (HPLC) for testing.

Although testing can be done as early as week 1 from germination, waiting until week 3 to conduct testing on seedlings can increase accuracy, and some companies won’t conduct testing until week 3.

There are many reasons growers would like to know plant sex as early as possible, as well as be able to estimate the overall THC/CBD ratios of future buds!

Did You Know? There are Chemical Leaf Tests that Can Definitively Determine Both Plant Sex & Future Cannabinoid Ratios of Very Young Marijuana Seedlings!

But for those of us using our eyes…

Male Pre-Flower

Female Pre-Flowers
(these turn into buds)

This female pre-flower hasn’t released a wispy white pistil quite yet

When starting with “feminized” seeds (which you can usually only get from a breeder), all your seeds should end up being female, so determining male from female isn’t very important. Learn more about buying seeds (including feminized seeds) from breeders online.

But for growers starting with “regular” (non-feminized) seeds, about half of the plants can turn out to be male. And unfortunately, there’s no way to look at a seed and be able to tell what sex it is.

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Unfortunately, you can’t tell a cannabis plant’s sex for sure by looking at the seeds

How to Figure out Sex of a Cannabis Plant by Examining Pre-flowers

Vegetating plants usually reveal their sex when they’re just 3-6 weeks old from seed, but you have to know where to look.

What you’re looking for is “pre-flowers.” These are tiny versions of adult sex parts, and when you see them you can tell what sex the plant is going to be. They usually show up in the upper parts of the plant, closer to the lights, but sometimes you’ll search the whole plant and only find a pre-flower on a random branch lower down on the plant.

Vegetating cannabis plants reveal their sex with “pre-flowers” that usually appear 3-6 weeks from when the plant first germinated.

Although these are the general shapes of male and female pre-flowers, if you continue looking through the pictures below, you’ll see there’s quite a bit of variation on what pre-flowers look like from strain to strain.

Most male plants have grown a pre-flower by week 3-4 from seed, while female plants don’t show until week 4-6. Basically, all vegetative plants will have revealed their sex by about the 6th week from seed.

So, without further ado, here are pictures showing what you’re looking for when it comes to pre-flowers. Remember, pre-flowers are found at the V where stems meet a main stalk. But pre-flowers don’t usually show up all over the plant. Make sure to look around in different places, especially near the top of the plant and closer to the lights

Note: Pre-flowers show up most often near the top of the plant and closer to the lights but could be anywhere on the plant. There may be just one on the whole plant so you may have to search all over!

Male Pre-Flowers

Male pre-flowers tend to have a “spade” shape, like the spades from a deck of playing cards. Male cannabis plants often (but not always) reveal their sex sooner than female plants.

Male pre-flowers tend to be shaped somewhat like a spade

This male plant was only 3 weeks when it made its first pre-flower. Notice how tiny it is compared to the giant-sized thumb! Often it’s unclear what the sex is when a pre-flower is this small (unless you’ve got a lot of experience) so if you’re not sure, it’s a good idea to wait and see how it develops, just in case.

Just to give you an idea how small these can be when they show up…

This is the exact same picture as above, but with the pre-flower made bigger so you can see it. Pretty tiny, isn’t it?

Male pre-flowers are basically immature pollen sacs. When the plant starts flowering, they will grow and turn into bunches that almost look like grapes.

I’ve also noticed that sometimes (though not always!) the stipules on male plants seem more “leafy” and less “pointy” than stipules on female plants (the stipules are the green hair-like growths near where pre-flowers show up). However, this is just a generality, and should be used together with other factors to determine if a plant is male! There are definitely male plants with pointy stipules and vice versa, but it’s sort of a general difference.

This particular pre-flower is really tough to determine. However, in the end, it was a male plant. The little “stem” is one clue it may be male

Just like the above male plant, sometimes you get almost what looks like two tiny little leaves that the pre-flower pollen sac “unfurls” from. In the above picture the pollen sac is still mostly hidden, while in this next picture, the tiny growths have opened up to fully reveal the pollen sac. This can be confusing because these extra growths don’t appear on all plants, and are not a pre-flower or a stipule.

Here’s another male pollen sac pre-flower that’s on a little “stem”

A single male pre-flower appears

Once you see multiple pollen sacs and no white pistils, you can be confident it’s a male plant

Although this plant ended up being male, the stipules are long, pointy and crossed as you’d normally see with a female plant. That’s why you need to confirm sex with the pre-flowers and not just look at other factors on the plant!

Sometimes the pollen sacs look a little unusual when they first start growing in, but you know it’s male when you see several pre-flowers without any pistils stacked on top of each other like bunches of grapes

If you click the following picture and zoom in close, you can see pollen sacs scattered among the leaves

This is what male pollen sacs look like when the plant actually starts flowering

This male cannabis plant has gotten further along in the flowering stage

This is what a male plant looks like at maturity when it’s starting to spill its pollen

Another example of pollen spilling onto a nearby leaf

For those who’ve never seen a male cannabis plant in its full glory

Ok, now that you know what male pre-flowers look like, what do female pre-flowers look like?

Female Pre-Flowers

Female pre-flowers tend to be longer and narrower than male pre-flowers, sometimes with a fat bottom. They also usually (but not always) have 1-2 white hairs (pistils) sticking out from the top. Sometimes it takes a few extra days for the pistils to appear.

Wispy white pistils are a sure sign that you’re looking at female pre-flowers

This pre-flower doesn’t have a pistil sticking out at first, but the shape helps tell you it’s a female plant. If you’re not sure about sex after spotting a pre-flower, it’s a good idea to wait and see for a little while, just to see if a white hair appears (which means it’s definitely a girl)

Another example of female cannabis pre-flowers that haven’t revealed their pistil yet

Here’s a picture that shows a pistil right as it’s emerging from the calyx!

If the pre-flower is very pointy and thin like this one on the right, it is often a female pre-flower

Some of the time the stipules (green hair-like growths near where pre-flowers show up) will cross each other on female plants. This certainly doesn’t always happen, as you can see from the pics of female pre-flowers on this page, but while girls can go either way, male plants rarely have stipules that cross each other. So although crossed stipules cannot be used definitively as a way to identify female plants, it can be a small clue to help guide you when you’re not sure. For example, the following female pre-flower doesn’t have a pistil, but the long thin shape combined with the crossed stipules help indicate that this plant is a girl. Whenever in doubt, wait a week and look again!

This female plant has a long, thin calyx and crossed stipules, which are typical female plant features

In this pic, you can see white pistils emerging from the calyxes. Female pistils are white and wispy, never green.

Here’s another female pre-flower that doesn’t have a white hair yet, but you can tell it’s female because it’s long and narrow, instead of spade-shaped

One last female pre-flower without a pistil yet. The long narrow shape is the only thing that gives the sex away until pistils begin to emerge

Super close-up picture of a female cannabis pre-flower

Female cannabis calyxes with pistils, under an LED grow light

Did you know that pre-flowers/calyxes/flowers are actually what holds seeds if your plant gets pollinated? Once pollen touches the white pistils, the pollen gets delivered to the inside and a seed starts forming!

Variability of Cannabis Plant Sex – How to Increase Ratio of Female Plants with Regular Seeds

In fact, to this day scientists are still not sure exactly what causes certain plants to be one sex or another after sprouting. We’ve identified several factors that predict the overall likelihood of male/female plants (for example feminized seeds always produce female plants no matter what), but sex seems to be somewhat fluid in cannabis plants when they’re first germinated.

Certain conditions such as excessive heat, stress, unusual light periods and nutrient problems can cause a greater percentage of plants to produce male flowers.

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You may be able to increase the percentage of female plants with regular seeds during the first few weeks of life

On the flip side, the following factors may possibly increase the ratio of female plants with regular seeds (learn more):

  • Healthy Mom – Only grow seeds from a vigorous, healthy mother plant who never showed any signs of herming or male pollen sacs (seeds are more likely to grow pollen sacs if the mom plant had a tough start in life, or hermed during the flowering stage)
  • Cool Temperatures – Give seedlings slightly cool temperatures (65-75°F day and night) and avoid excessive heat
  • High Humidity (50-70% RH)
  • Short but not too short days. Keep consistent day and night periods with no light interruptions at night, and days should be 14-18 hours long (between 14/10 and 18/6) for the first few weeks
  • Blue light. Always start seeds under a vegetative grow light (something with plenty of blue like a Metal Halide or a 6500k CFL/T5/fluorescent)
  • Avoid Deficiencies – Make sure to provide plenty of Nitrogen and don’t let seedlings become nutrient-starved or run into other types of deficiencies
  • Prevent Stress, especially heat or light stress during the first few weeks
  • Happy Roots – Avoid over (and especially) under watering

Once a cannabis plant is about 3 weeks old, its sex is pretty much completely set and can be determined either by visual inspection or by chemical leaf test.

Unfortunately, due to the fact that different environmental conditions during the first part of life can alter the sex, you can’t look at seeds and definitively know one way or the other whether the plant will end up being female because even the plant doesn’t necessarily “know”.

For example, say you take a clone of a seedling before it’s 3 weeks old. It’s possible that one clone will be male, and the other clone will be female. However, if you take a clone after week 3, the sexes of clones will always match each other. This is further evidence to indicate that the environment can affect sex expression in some cases.

How to Predetermine the Sex of Cannabis Plants

A ll of the cannabis we buy, sell, and smoke is harvested from unpollinated female plants. Male plants produce pollen instead of flowers, and pollinated females convert their metabolic energy away from growing flowers to growing healthy seeds instead. The result is smaller, less potent flowers that are full of seeds. Only unpollinated females produce the large, psychoactive flowers that earned the name sinsemilla, literally “without seeds.”

Related Articles

  • Understanding the Anatomy of a Cannabis Plant
  • How Long Does it Take to Grow Cannabis Plants?
  • Are Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) in Cannabis Cultivation Harmful?
  • Sexing Marijuana Plants & Reproduction

Identifying the sex of a cannabis plant as early as possible is a critical skill when growing plants from seed. If you are growing to harvest your own bud, then not only are males useless as they do not grow smokable flower, but they also pose a threat to your female plants by pollination.

The good news is that it is possible to determine the sex of a cannabis plant by identifying its reproductive organs before the plant can use them. This article will explain how cannabis plants reproduce, and examine how to determine the sex of a cannabis plant before they are able to pollinate or be pollinated.

Note: while cannabis plants are capable of hermaphroditism — when a female plant produces its own pollen — this is most often the result of external stress or modulation. This article will focus solely on identifying the initial presenting sex of the plant.

How Cannabis Reproduces

Like most living things on this planet, cannabis plants come in one of two sexes, male and female. Male plants produce pollen which carries their DNA to female plants who receive the pollen and begin to grow seeds.

Male pollen is produced in pollen sacks that grow like clusters of grapes. Eventually, these sacks burst and pollen is released, where it floats on the wind searching for a female plant.

Where male plants grow pollen sacks, female plants will grow a calyx, which contains an ovum that could be pollinated. From the calyx, the female plant will produce fine hairs called “stigma,” and these stigma are adapted to receive pollen.

Once these stigma catch pollen from the air, the plant has been “impregnated,” and the plant’s metabolic energy is directed toward seed production, rather than flower production. The flowers that do grow, then, are smaller, less potent, and full of seeds.

How to Determine a Cannabis Plant’s Sex

A cannabis plant’s life exists largely in two stages: the vegetative stage, and the flowering stage. The vegetative stage is first, when the plant is aggressively growing stalks and leaves, and it is this stage when you will determine the sex of your plant.

Sex structures can begin to show in as few as 14 days, but the average is longer. Keep an eye out beginning the second week of the growing process, and you should catch them as they start coming in.

The plant’s sex organs will grow in the “nodes,” or the corners where the leafy stems emerge from the stalk. But sex organs will not grow from every node, so be sure to examine your plant thoroughly each day.

The male pollen sacks will grow in small bulbous clusters sometimes described as “crab claws.” They may not release pollen for a few more weeks, so you have a small, forgiving window if you miss one. However, the plant material is soft, and a slip of the finger or bump of a tool could puncture or tear them, releasing the pollen inside.

Thus, it is best to identify males as soon as possible and, if you are growing to harvest, remove them from the grow area, and probably from the property. Researchers at Michigan State University have shown that cannabis pollen can carry more than ten miles.

The nodes of female cannabis plants generally emerge later, first presenting a calyx. This is a “pre-flower,” and some growers recognize this “pre-flowering stage” between vegetative and full flowering. The calyx serves as a small sheath containing an ovum. If the plant were to be pollinated, this is where the first seeds would start being produced.

Eventually, wispy white stigma will emerge, holding a hand to the air, hoping to catch some pollen. Once the stigmas are visible, the female plant is mature enough to be pollinated, so make sure any males are far away, or sealed up someplace tight and sanitary

Predetermining the Sex of a Cannabis Plant

If you need to shave a few weeks off the process, photoperiod manipulation combined with cloning may be used to “force sex” a plant. Begin by cutting and potting a suitable clone from the plant. Once it is established and healthy, put the clone under a 12/12 light cycle. This will induce the flowering stage, even in its infancy, and reveal stigmas or pollen sacks. Since this is the same DNA as the plant it was cut from, this reveals the gender of the source plant.

Summary

Knowing how to sex a plant is important for both breeders and home-growers hoping to harvest their own bud.

Begin scouting for sex organs after the first two weeks of the plant’s life. They will grow from the intersection where the stems grow out from the stalk, called “nodes.” Male plants will produce pollen sacks that look like grapes or balls, and females will produce thin, wispy hairs called stigma.

Once the female’s stigmas have emerged, the plant is mature enough to be pollinated. Any pollen they receive after that point will “impregnate” the plant. After a female plant has been pollinated, flower production is sacrificed for seed production, effectively ruining your harvest. Fertilized cannabis flowers are smaller, less potent, and full of seeds.

To avoid this whole ordeal, some growers purchase feminized seeds: seeds that are guaranteed to produce a female plant.

How have you determined the sex of your plants? Share your wisdom in the comments below!