Best Weed Seeds


Buy Cannabis Seeds Online

Want to buy marijuana seeds online? Weedseedsexpress has the best cannabis seeds for sale! Order online! Germination + Delivery are guaranteed. Best Seed Banks 2022: Cannabis Seeds That Ship To USA It’s no news that the use of cannabis is common worldwide, and more governments are considering legalizing it due to its numerous health Manage the Weed Seed Bank—Minimize “Deposits” and Maximize “Withdrawals” One of the most important—yet often neglected—weed management strategies is to reduce the number of weed seeds present in

Best Weed Seeds

Great deals, Great value!
Extra discount on cannabis seeds.

We are very discrete with your order and details

You will receive your order quickly and safely

Our catalog contains over a hundred strains

We make sure your order gets delivered

The #1 seed shop to buy marijuana seeds online

Weedseedsexpress guarantees the highest quality weed seeds

Since 2005 we have been passionate about cannabis, growing and seeds. As active growers, we grow and harvest a wide range of cannabis strains. We therefore know all the strains we offer in our shop and can advise you from our own experience.

Because we think it’s important that our customers buy cannabis seeds online that meet their expectations, we only deliver the highest quality healthy weed seeds. Guaranteed! Want to buy the best marijuana seeds online? Order weed seeds at Weedseedsexpress!

Marijuana seeds on sale

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Acapulco Gold feminized seeds

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ACDC feminized seeds

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Blue Dream autoflowering seeds

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Blue Dream feminized seeds

Weedseedsexpress, offers the best place to buy weed seeds online

Weedseedsexpress is your online store to buy weed seeds. Our company of Dutch origin stands for high quality marijuana seeds with a fast, safe and discreet delivery.

Every month thousands of customers order marijuana seeds in our online shop and of course we provide them everything they need. Buying weed seeds online at Weedseedsexpress means that your delivery is guaranteed.

Regularly we offer weed seeds with discounts or as a deal package. Don’t want to miss out on an offer? Subscribe to our newsletter. We will keep you informed about new offers, blogs and news. You can subscribe to our newsletter below (see the subscription option ‘Stay up to date’ in the footer).

Large assortment of weed seeds

Would you like to buy marijuana seeds online quickly and easily? Guaranteed that you will find your seeds on Weedseedsexpress. With more than 100 different kinds of seeds, there is plenty of choice. From cannabis seeds for beginners to high yielding seeds for the more advanced grower.

Autoflower seeds

Buying autoflower marijuana seeds is a wise choice. These autoflower seeds need little attention to grow, which makes them very suitable for inexperienced growers.

Feminized seeds

When buying feminized cannabis seeds, you will get the best yield. Our feminized seeds have an average germination rate of 96.1%, so almost every seed grows into a full cannabis plant.

Regular seeds

Is growing weed your hobby and do you want to grow beautiful full buds? Then opt for regular marijuana seeds. As an advanced grower you know that regular seeds require extra attention and time, but you get a generous yield of the highest quality weed in return.

Seeds for beginners

You want to grow weed for the first time? Choose from our seeds for beginners. These seeds require little maintenance, so your harvest can’t actually fail. Choose from more than 50 different varieties.

Newest weed seeds

CBD White Widow autoflowering seeds
CBD Kush autoflowering seeds
CBD Express feminized seeds
CBD Critical Mass autoflowering seeds

Most read articles

On Weedseedsexpress you will find lots of helpful articles about buying cannabis seeds, growing and harvesting. Based on our step-by-step guides, you will learn how to get the most out of your seeds.

Popular blog posts

It almost sounds like a philosophical question, but indeed, what are autoflowering seeds? When mentioning the term autoflowering, we are talking about autoflowering cannabis. As the name suggests, this type of cannabis plant turns…

When growing cannabis, especially for those who are just starting out, it can be more than helpful to receive a little guidance. Maybe you have already read our Autoflower Grow Guide, and are now at the point to decide which autof…

You may already know important things about the life cycle of cannabis or how to germinate seeds. Now, you may want to grow some plants yourself. If you decide to plant indoors, you will need to set up your grow room before planti…

Whether you grow with autoflowering weed seeds or feminized seeds, weed plants go through different stages. This is called the cannabis grow cycle or weed plant stages. When growing weed it’s important to understand each stage of…

To grow weed, you need high quality marijuana seeds. But how many seeds do you need to grow weed? And then there’s the question: how many marijuana plants do you want to grow? This ultimately determines how many seeds you need. B…

You have finished germinating your weed seeds, and it is now time to begin planting them. Planting weed seeds involves moving a seedling from a paper towel or small container to a larger pot. There are a few items you will need an…

What kind of seeds are you looking for?

All our weed seeds nicely organized. Find the type of seed you are looking for within a click.

The best marijuana seeds for sale and the greatest service!
Order weed seeds at Weedseedsexpress.

Online, there are some great cannabis seed suppliers to be found. Yet, as a customer who is planning to buy marijuana seeds online, you have to make a choice where to buy your weed seeds. Such a place needs to offer trust, confidence by providing the best guarantees. Not to mention, the best genetics. Here’s where Weedseedsexpress comes in.

Still wondering where to get weed seeds?

At Weedseedsexpress you order marijuana seeds of the highest quality possible. Orders are processed professionally, with a personal approach and respect for both your privacy and needs. On top of that, we provide:

1. Guaranteed the best customer service

Here at Weedseedsexpress you will experience excellent customer care, if not the best! Even during weekends and holidays, your questions will be answered. Our customer service team is trained, friendly and resolves an issue when there is one. This is how we ensure the greatest customer journey.

Check out what customers say about us on Trustpilot!

2. Guaranteed the best marijuana seeds

To guarantee the highest quality, Weedseedsexpress works with in-house breeders. All varieties we offer in our online seed shop are hand selected and have a tested germination rate of 96.1% on average.

3. Guaranteed germination

Because we test all the seeds ourselves, we know exactly what the quality of the seeds is. In other words, at Weedseedsexpress you buy cannabis seeds that germinate and grow in sturdy, healthy cannabis plants. Do you have a problem with the germination? Then we provide replacement seeds.

4. Guaranteed delivery

When you buy weed seeds online at Weedseedsexpress can be sure that your order will arrive safe and sound. In the rare case that your order does not arrive, we will resend your order without too much trouble.

5. Free cannabis seeds

At Weedseedsexpress we like to make our customers happy. Free weed seeds are part of that which we add depending on your order. In case we offer free seeds with your order, you will see how many free cannabis seeds you will get with your order on the product page.

6. Pay as you like

When ordering weed seeds at Weedseedsexpress you pay for your order in a safe and convenient way. We offer bank wire transfers and for customers in most countries credit card payments. Customers who prefer extra anonymity can choose for a cash or Bitcoin payment.

For the USA specifically we offer some very convenient payment methods.

7. Fast worldwide shipping

We provide the fastest international delivery possible. Depending on your country, you can also add track & trace to your shipment.

Delivery time
For the most up-to-date transit times, please check shipping and delivery.

8. Stealth / Discreet shipping

We ship stealth as a standard. All our mail orders and packages fit in the mailbox and are sent as regular post, with nothing that relates to cannabis on the in- and outside. In that way, discreet shipping is guaranteed and 95% of our shipments arrive without any problems.

Best Seed Banks 2022: Cannabis Seeds That Ship To USA

It’s no news that the use of cannabis is common worldwide, and more governments are considering legalizing it due to its numerous health benefits. Several studies and research institutions have found that most Americans support legalizing marijuana. The entire cannabis market is rapidly expanding as more countries legalize marijuana usage.

So, once you’ve done your research and know for sure it is legal to grow cannabis in your region, the next step is to buy the seeds from a reputable seed bank. For those who are unaware, seed banks are repositories where seeds are kept to preserve and propagate genetic variation.

Thus, online cannabis seed banks offer potential cannabis farmers the seeds they need to start cultivation. However, finding a reputable seed bank to purchase cannabis seeds from can be quite tricky.

Note that the high demand for marijuana seeds also comes with its downsides; hundreds of seed banks are in the market claiming to sell quality seeds. The issue, however, is that not all of these online stores offer high-quality cannabis seeds.

Not all suppliers provide good cannabis seeds that will grow and produce the high-quality flowers you need. Carefully considering the type of cannabis seed bank you invest in is vital in ensuring that your money doesn’t go to waste.

For example, most online seed banks don’t offer a germination guarantee, and this factor is essential in ensuring your money doesn’t go to waste. So, don’t know which of the several seed banks offer high-quality cannabis seeds online? Well, we can help with that!

This article will cover the five best seed banks to purchase cannabis seeds. Also, we’ll show you how we made our list and the factors to consider when choosing an online seed bank.

Top 5 Cannabis Seed Banks To Buy Cannabis Seeds Online

  1. Seedsman – Overall Best Seeds Bank With Rich Marijuana Seeds Variety
  2. I Love Growing Marijuana (ILGM) – Guaranteed Delivery Of Best Weed Seeds
  3. The Vault – Top-Quality Weed Seed For Sale
  4. Ministry of Cannabis – Recommended Cannabis Seed Banks For Fast Delivery
  5. MSNL Seed Bank – Most Potent Weed Seeds Of USA

Here are the detailed reviews of our top picks:

#1. Seedsman Overall Best Seeds Bank With Rich Marijuana Seeds Variety

If you are looking for quality cannabis strains, then Seedsman is another reputable brand to visit. Since its establishment in 2002, this marijuana seed bank has been one of the pioneers in the commercialization of CBD genetics and auto-flowering.

Seedsman is one of the big names in the cannabis industry, and is passionately dedicated to sharing the best in variety and genetics with millions of people. Their production team is made of innovators and experts from around the world who travel the globe in search of seeds, knowledge, expertise, and culture.

Over the years, this company has evolved to become one of the world’s leading seed banks, providing collectors with access to premium cannabis seeds from the world’s best breeders.

On a different note, there aren’t many seed banks that can match this one in terms of offering a wide range of high-quality strains. Over 50 different strains from over 30 different breeders are available at Seedsman, along with premium seeds.

Strain types you’ll find on this brand include Skunk Strains blueberry, kush, cheese, haze, white widow, and girl scout cookies.


Standard Quality Practices: Seedsman is one of the few reputable brands that prioritize using standard quality practices. Each cultivar on this brand is rigorously tested for growth, yield, and vitality. Seedsman’s team of experts also takes the time to check each cultivar’s chemical output and health benefits. Additionally, most breeders this brand partner with have decades of experience with breeding cannabis strains. Lastly, products from this brand adhere to the strictest standards to ensure that only the finest seeds are available for sale.

Active Cannabis Community: Seedsman offers a chat community where you can meet and connect with other cannabis enthusiasts. Here, you can share opinions, stories, and information with different collectors worldwide. You can join this community through their Discord channel or Reddit page. In addition, this brand organizes events like live streams, podcasts, and social clubs to keep you updated. Also, note that this brand is active on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and other social media platforms.

Up-To-Date Newsletter: Seedsman never fails to ensure that all its customers have the most recent news, resources, and articles about cannabis. Sign-up for their newsletter to be the first to know about their upcoming freebies, contests, giveaway, sales, and other offers.

Loyalty Points: One of the reasons customers love this brand is because everything you do earns you loyalty points. Seedsman rewards you with points anytime you refer a friend, sign-up for their newsletter, buy products, and complete other actions.

  • 300+ quality cannabis strains
  • Multiple payment options
  • Offer return and refunds
  • Worldwide shipping
  • Fast shipping services
  • Discreet packaging
  • Offers free weed seed
  • Poor customer support
  • No free shipping

#2. I Love Growing Marijuana (ILGM) Guaranteed Delivery Of Best Weed Seeds

ILGM is also one of the most reputable and largest seed stores to buy cannabis seeds. This UK-based store has been around since 2012 and is well-known for delivering high-quality seeds in a range of varieties. Plus, this company boasts of having 4000+ positive reviews and an average rating of 4.8

Regarding seed variety, ILGM offers 3000+ specialty seeds, which they collect from over 65 different trusted sperm banks worldwide. Some of their bestselling strains include super skunk, Durban poison, granddaddy purple, gorilla glue, and auto super mix.

Besides high-quality seeds, ILGM also prides itself in ensuring customers enjoy an enjoyable shopping experience. The official website is user-friendly, and the entire buying process is straightforward. Also, if you have any problems with your order, contact the customer support team, and you’ll receive help in no time.

Another advantage of choosing this brand is they offer free and fast shipping services. ILGM is one of the best online seed banks that ships to the USA for free and without hidden costs. Plus, orders usually arrive within ten business days.


Multiple Payment Options: One of the reasons customers love this brand is that they accept multiple payment methods. ILGM is one of the few online seed banks allowing you to pay cash for your seeds. Also, this brand allows you to purchase your seeds using bank transfers, credit card payments, and money orders. However, note that some banks may block the transaction if you try to use your credit card to purchase cannabis seeds. This usually happens in regions where cannabis is illegal. Not to worry, ILGM also supports bitcoin payment if this happens.

Educative Blog: ILGM is also interested in helping you buy and understand how to use your cannabis seeds. This seed bank features a rich library of growing resources. Here, you can learn all you need to know about the marijuana growing cycle, nutrient requirements, uses, germination issues, and others. Also, if you are having trouble getting the most from your plants, this brand’s expert team is happy to help you.

Stealth Shipping: This seed bank also offers the right package for those who want to keep their cannabis cultivation hidden. ILGM discreetly delivers your package and guarantees that no one will know its content unless they open it.

See also  Marijuana Seeds

Germination Guarantee: Seeds are natural products and are never completely reliable. Therefore, this brand has put in place a germination guarantee to ensure none of your investment goes to waste. First, this brand will provide you with a Germination Guide after making your purchase. However, if your seeds fail to sprout after following the guide, you can request a refund or seed replacement immediately. Nevertheless, note that the new seeds will be of the same strain as the ones that didn’t sprout.

  • Free standard shipping
  • Offers monthly deals and promos
  • Good customer service
  • Offers germination guarantee
  • Wide variety of seeds
  • User-friendly website
  • Guaranteed delivery
  • Delivery with tracking costs $25
  • Seeds are priced a little higher

#3. The Vault Top-Quality Weed Seed For Sale

The Vault Cannabis Seeds Store has been operating since 2012. It is well-known for delivering premium quality seeds to your door. Plus, this is one of the few online marijuana seed banks passionate about ensuring their customers are fully satisfied.

One of the main reasons we love this company is its unwavering commitment to quality. This company boasts of being one of the best places to get affordable, discounted, and premium weed seeds. The Vault Cannabis Seeds Store only partners with reputable seed breeders across the USA and Europe.

Plus, this seed bank only works with breeders who satisfy their strict quality criteria. So, you can be sure that whatever seeds you purchase from this company will be a wonderful addition to your genetic collection. Additionally, this seed store offers stealth shipping to ensure that your purchases are protected.

It may also interest you to know that this company does more than just ship marijuana seeds. The Vault is also an active campaigner for the legalization and personal use of marijuana. This company is passionate about enlightening the world about the medical advantages of marijuana.


Wide Range of Cannabis Strains: The Vault Cannabis Seeds Store offers thousands of incredible strains from the world’s top breeders. There’s almost no cannabis strain you won’t find in this seed bank. Plus, this company is popular for offering some of the world’s most potent and rarest varieties. Cannabis seeds from this bank include feminized seeds, auto-flowering seeds, medical, THC, and CBD strains.

Discount Cannabis Seeds: Another advantage of choosing this seed bank is that they offer premium seeds at affordable prices. It also offers discounts and special offers to make your shopping experience more enjoyable. For example, this company offers three free seeds with purchases over £75 and four free seeds with purchases over £100.

Outstanding Customer Support: The Vault Cannabis Seeds Store boasts of having one of the best customer services in the industry. This company’s customer service team goes the extra mile to ensure the needs of its customers are met without fail. Moreover, The Vault Cannabis Seeds Store is dedicated to offering more free seeds than any other seed bank on the market.

Affiliate Program: Beyond the discounts and freebies, another advantage of choosing this company is the opportunity to earn extra cash through their affiliate program. The earning process is super simple, and all you need to earn commissions is a website. If you have a website, get your affiliate link and promote the brand’s banner and text link. You’ll earn a commission for every customer you bring to the brand.

  • Offers discreet and secure shipping services
  • Offers a wide variety of marijuana strains
  • 100% secure payment
  • Excellent customer service
  • Supports multiple payment methods
  • Offers international shipping
  • Offers high-quality free seeds
  • Free delivery only applies in the UK

#4. Ministry of Cannabis Recommended Cannabis Seed Banks For Fast Delivery

The Ministry of Cannabis is another top seed bank to get quality cannabis strains. This seed bank is based in Spain and has been on the market for over a decade. This company is on a mission to improve and maintain a continuous supply of classic cannabis strains.

One of the reasons this company is well-recognized in Europe is that they prioritize the delivery of fresh seeds. The Ministry of Cannabis rotates its seed stocks regularly to ensure only fresh cannabis seeds are supplied to customers.

This company supplies fresh marijuana seeds to both individual and professional growers. Additionally, they supply auto-flowering, CBD, and feminized seeds to other small and popular cannabis companies. Plus, the Ministry of Cannabis offers fast shipping services worldwide, and stealth shipping guarantees cover all deliveries.


Fast Worldwide Shipping: One of the key things clients will mention when discussing this brand is their fast shipping services. All products from this brand are packaged and shipped within 48 hours. However, note that this seed bank doesn’t ship on holidays and weekends. Plus, all packages from this brand are protected by stealth shipping guarantees. This means that your package won’t carry the brand’s name or make mention of marijuana or cannabis. However, note that you can also ship your marijuana seeds with the original package if you prefer. All you have to do is email the brand and request the original bags.

Delivery Guaranteed: Products from this cannabis seed bank are also packaged with a tracking number. You can use this number to track the progress of your order. In the event your package doesn’t arrive after 30 days, you can re-ship your order for no additional costs. However, note offer doesn’t apply to third-time purchases.

Secured Website: Another benefit of choosing this seed bank is that they take your security seriously. This company doesn’t display or share your personal information, such as your credit card details, with any third party. Also, you can choose to delete your personal information on this site whenever you want. Plus, your deliveries and payments on this site are 100% secured.

Convenient Payment Methods: The Ministry of Cannabis also tries to ensure that your shopping experience is as convenient as possible. You can choose to pay for your cannabis seeds using cash, international bank transfer, credit card, bitcoin, and RIA payment. However, note that credit cards are charged in euros. Plus, RIA and bank transfer orders must also be completed in euros.

Educational Resources: Ministry of Cannabis is an excellent choice for those who want to learn more about growing cannabis. This brand provides a ton of information for new growers about growing cannabis, the different cannabis strains, their benefits, and THC content.

  • Excellent customer support
  • Guaranteed delivery
  • Accepts multiple payment methods
  • Discreet packaging and billing
  • Excellent customer reviews
  • International shipping
  • Free shipping applies only to orders above 75 euros
  • Few discount offers

#5. MSNL Seed Bank Most Potent Weed Seeds Of USA

MSNL was established in 1999 and is one of the oldest seed banks on the market. This company is well-known for its fast-shipping services and the wide variety of cannabis seeds it offers. MSNL offers over 250 varieties of seeds, including feminized, medical, auto-flowering, regular, and high-yield seeds.

Plus, this brand boasts of having over 100,000 satisfied customers and 6000+ reviews. MSNL also ships marijuana seeds worldwide and includes a pack of free seeds with every order. Additionally, all of your packages are sent discreetly, and there is a delivery guarantee policy to ensure you have an enjoyable buying experience.


Reputable Brand: MSNL puts a lot of time and effort into ensuring customers get genuine cannabis seeds. Every cannabis seed you’ll find on this brand has passed through comprehensive research, rigorous testing, and masterful intuition. MSNL uses these measures to ensure they deliver the finest cannabis seeds.

Same-Day Shipping: Another benefit of using this seed bank is its lightning-fast delivery services. MSNL offers same-day shipping services and guaranteed delivery for an enjoyable shopping experience.

100% Satisfaction: This brand guarantees that you’ll receive exactly what you order safely and discreetly. Plus, MSNL guarantees that it’ll resend your package if it isn’t delivered in perfect condition or gets lost in transit.

Reward Program: MSNL also rewards its loyal customers through its reward program. Here, you can earn more money anytime you order your seeds. Plus, the loyalty points have no expiry date, and there’s no limit to the number of points you can earn.

  • 100% discreet
  • Affordable prices
  • Free seeds with every order
  • Guaranteed delivery
  • 15% off bank transfer
  • Finest quality genetics
  • Multiple and secure payment methods
  • Subpar customer support

How We Made This List Of Best Seed Banks That Ship Marijuana Seeds Legally:

Finding reputable seed banks that ship to the US lawfully can be challenging and sometimes unclear. However, with the help of this article, you can locate a trustworthy seed bank in no time. We took time to research several online seed banks and made our list based on certain factors.

Not only did we choose the best seed banks, but we also ensured they offered good value for money and covered important features. Let’s have a look at the factors we considered when making our list.

What we looked for

  • Brand Reputation: The quality of a company is only as good as its customer reviews. You can trust companies who have been in the market for a long time and have a proven track record of providing quality services.
  • Strain Quality: Another important factor we considered when choosing the best seed banks is strain quality. Strain quality is the primary indicator of a good seed bank. This factor shows how much the company values offering high-quality seeds to their customers. Getting good cannabis seeds helps ensure a high germination rate and bountiful yield. Therefore, only seed banks that offer quality strains made our list.
  • Strain Types: Next, we considered the strain types available on different online seed banks. This factor comes in handy when looking for a specific strain type. Plus, going for brands with different strain options means you won’t be limited to one strain type.
  • Fast and Discreet Shipping: We rounded up our research by considering the shipping services of different online seed banks. The best seed banks are those that provide fast and reliable shipping services and regularly connect with customers.

Since the laws governing the use of cannabis seeds vary from country to country, we only listed seed banks with delivery success rates of higher than 95%. Shipping discretion is another important factor we considered when making our list.

This factor also comes in handy if you want to ship cannabis seeds to a state or country where it isn’t entirely legal. Reputable seed banks take measures to protect your purchases and offer covert shipment. Therefore, only online seed banks that offer discreet shipping made our list.

Factors To Consider When Choosing Cannabis Seeds Dispensary:

We’ve provided you with a list of the five best seed banks that sell cannabis seeds online. However, note that there are dozens of other reputable seed banks offering premium marijuana seeds.

Companies like Herbies Seeds, Crop King seeds and Gorilla seed bank are all reputable companies where you can get high-quality cannabis seeds. However, if you aren’t satisfied with our list, we’ve also provided you with tips on how to find the best seed banks. Here are factors to consider when choosing the best seed banks:

? Germination Guarantee

The band’s germination guarantee policy is one of the most important factors to consider when choosing a seed bank. Your cannabis farm will fail if your seeds don’t germinate in the first place.

Also, if your cannabis seeds fail to germinate, your entire investment will have been for nothing. To prevent this, most reputable seed banks offer a germination rate guarantee. This guarantee helps ensure that you’ll be able to get a refund or replace the seeds if they don’t germinate.

If you use seed banks without a germination guarantee, you won’t be able to deal with any potential germination problems. Therefore, it’s best to go for brands that offer a germination rate guarantee.

? Payment Methods

If you want a convenient shopping experience, go for brands that support multiple payment methods. Your seed bank should be able to accept payment via bank transfers, credit cards, and of course, bitcoin.

Paying for cannabis seeds using credit cards in countries where cannabis is illegal can be challenging at times. Your bank may block your transaction and place you on their watch list when you try to make a payment. However, you can get past this issue using bitcoin payments.

Bitcoin payment is one of the best and most anonymous ways to buy cannabis seeds online in regions where it is illegal.

? Stealth-Delivery and Shipping Range

Although most cannabis seed banks deliver worldwide, some brands ship to the USA alone. Therefore, ensure you confirm whether the seed bank ships to your region before making purchases.

You’ll have a hard time closing your order if the company doesn’t ship to your region. Besides shipping range, stealth delivery is another important factor to consider when choosing a seed bank.

Stealth delivery allows you to purchase cannabis seeds without any third party knowing the content of your package. This factor also comes in handy in regions where cannabis is considered contraband.

Moreover, packages without identifying markings are more likely to pass through your country’s customs office. Plus, stealth delivery helps you hide your package from the prying eyes of friends and loved ones.

? Customer Service

Another excellent way to distinguish between bad and good brands is by the quality of their customer service. Brands that are only after your money are likely to have very poor customer service.

For example, most fraudulent brands are fond of offering low-quality products, delayed shipping services, and poor packaging. Therefore, It’s best to steer clear of seed banks that offer subpar customer services.

Before buying from a seed bank, ensure you consider their reputation, shipping range, payment method, and stealth delivery services.

? Educative Blog

Whether or not you are a newbie, searching for seed banks that provide an educational blog on their website is also important. The materials on this blog will give you a head start and increase the likelihood that your plants will flourish.

? Customer Service

Customer reviews are the last but not the least factor to consider when choosing a seed bank. Although most people must ignore this option, reading customer reviews is one of the best ways to fish out bad brands.

Through customer reviews, you can easily tell if customers are satisfied with the brand’s services. Take your time to see what customers are saying about the brand. Are there lots of bad reviews? Are customers complaining about delivery services?

Do other customers find it difficult to replace their seeds? Does the brand offer stealth delivery? Note that answering all these questions and more will help you avoid brands with terrible products and services.

FAQs Regarding Seeds Bank:

1. Is buying from marijuana or cannabis banks legal?

The answer to this question is yes and no. The laws governing the use and sales of cannabis vary from state to state. This means that cannabis may or may not be illegal in your region.

Countries like Canada and the Netherlands allow the sale and purchase of cannabis. Plus, the sale and purchase of cannabis seeds are legal in most states in the USA. Therefore, you won’t experience many legal problems when you buy cannabis seeds in these regions.

However, other countries have stricter laws in place that make the purchase of cannabis seeds illegal. It is best to get confirmation from your local law enforcement if you are unsure whether cannabis is legal in your country.

2. What is the best way to germinate marijuana seeds?

There are various ways to germinate marijuana seeds. However, the most popular and effective way to germinate your seeds includes using a germination dome, wet paper towel, or planting them in germination soil.

As a tip, ensure you confirm the germination method required for the specific cannabis strain you are cultivating.

See also  How To Tell If Cannabis Seeds Are Bad

3. What is the best way to store seeds?

Keep your cannabis seeds in a dry, cool place and away from sunlight to prolong their shelf life. You can also store them in an air-tight container to protect them from pests and moisture.

4. Is it safe to buy seeds online?

Buying seeds online is totally safe, as long as you stick to reputable brands. For example, brands that have a proven track record of delivering quality services are less likely to scam you.

Plus, seed banks that offer stealth delivery usually have a higher success rate when it comes to delivery. This is because packages from such companies are less likely to be confiscated or intercepted by your country’s customs office.

For example, most seed banks hide the seeds in objects like DVD cases to prevent suspicion. Also, avoid selecting a delivery option that requires a signature. This tip helps prevent drawing attention to the package.

Lastly, ensure you choose a payment method that can’t be traced back to you. We recommend choosing bitcoin as your payment method because it is encrypted and untraceable.

Concluding – Best Marijuana Seed Banks Of 2022:

You’ll need the best cannabis seeds if you want your farm to grow and produce premium flowers. To get the best cannabis seeds, you’ll need to find reputable brands that offer high-quality products.

Note that there are hundreds of companies offering cannabis seeds on the market. However, most of these seed banks don’t offer premium cannabis seeds. To ensure you don’t fall into the hands of fraudulent brands, we’ve provided you with a list of the five best seed banks on the market.

The brands on our list are all reputable seed banks with a proven track record of offering high-quality seeds. However, if you still want to explore the market, ensure you visit our buying guide to make your search easier.

This guide explains in detail the factors to consider when choosing the best seed banks. These factors include germination guarantee, multiple payment methods, shipping range, and stealth delivery. Ensure you consider these factors before making purchases to have an enjoyable shopping experience.

Manage the Weed Seed Bank—Minimize “Deposits” and Maximize “Withdrawals”

One of the most important—yet often neglected—weed management strategies is to reduce the number of weed seeds present in the field, and thereby limit potential weed populations during crop production. This is accomplished by managing the weed seed bank.

What is the Weed Seed Bank, and Why is it Important to Organic Farmers?

The weed seed bank is the reserve of viable weed seeds present on the soil surface and scattered throughout the soil profile. It consists of both new weed seeds recently shed, and older seeds that have persisted in the soil from previous years. In practice, the soil’s weed seed bank also includes the tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, and other vegetative structures through which some of our most serious perennial weeds propagate themselves. In the following discussion, the term weed seed bank is defined as the sum of viable weed seeds and vegetative propagules that are present in the soil and thus contribute to weed pressure in future crops. Agricultural soils can contain thousands of weed seeds and a dozen or more vegetative weed propagules per square foot.

The weed seed bank serves as a physical history of the past successes and failures of cropping systems, and knowledge of its content (size and species composition) can help producers both anticipate and ameliorate potential impacts of crop–weed competition on crop yield and quality. Eliminating “deposits” to the weed seed bank—also called seed rain—is the best approach to ease future weed management. Over a five-year period in Nebraska, broadleaf and grass weed seed banks were reduced to 5 percent of their original density when weeds were not allowed to produce seeds. However, in the sixth year, weeds were not controlled and the seed bank density increased to 90 percent of the original level (Burnside et al., 1986).

Weed seed banks are particularly critical in organic farming systems, which rely on cultivation as a primary means of weed control. Because a cultivation pass generally kills a fixed proportion of weed seedlings present, a high initial population will result in a high density of weeds surviving cultivation—escapes—and competing with the crop. Initial weed population is directly related to the density of seeds in the seed bank (Brainard et al., 2008; Teasdale et al., 2004); thus, effective cultivation-based weed control requires either a low seed bank density (Forcella et al., 1993) or multiple cultivation passes to achieve adequate weed control. In addition, dense weed stands (for example, a “sod” of smooth crabgrass or other grass weed seedlings) can interfere with the efficacy of cultivation implements in severing or uprooting weeds (Mohler, 2001b).

Cultivation efficacy—weed kill—can vary considerably based on equipment, soil conditions, weed growth stage, and operator experience. Eighty percent mortality would be considered quite respectable, a level of weed control far less than that achieved with most herbicides. Therefore, without the “big hammer” of selective herbicides to remove heavy weed populations from standing crops, effective measures to reduce weed seed banks become vital for the organic farmer.

Inputs (“Deposits”) and Losses (“Withdrawals)

Organic growers aim to manage their weed seed banks in the opposite fashion from a long term savings account: minimize “deposits,” and maximize “withdrawals” (Forcella, 2003). Weed seed bank deposits include:

  • The annual weed seed return (or seed “rain”) from reproductively mature weeds in the field or in field margins
  • Production of new rhizomes, tubers, and other vegetative reproductive structures by perennial weeds
  • Weed seeds brought into the field through inputs and farm operations, such as manure, mulch hay, irrigation water, farm machinery, and custom operators
  • Weed seeds introduced by natural forces beyond the farmer’s control, such as wind, floodwaters, and migrating birds

Whereas the first two kinds of deposits have the greatest influence on future population levels of existing weed species, the latter two can introduce new weed species to the farm—somewhat analogous to opening a new kind of bank account with a small initial deposit and a sky-high interest rate. Even two or three viable seeds or propagules of a highly aggressive new weed species can spell trouble in years to come. Thus organic farmers strive both to prevent heavy deposits through propagation of existing weeds, and to prevent establishment of new weed species by excluding their seed and promptly eradicating new invaders. This topic is discussed further in Keeping New Weedy Invaders Out of the Field.

Weed seed bank withdrawals include:

  • Seed germination
  • Fatal germination, in which the seed or propagule sprouts but fails to reach the soil surface due to excessive depth or death from allelochemicals (natural phytotoxic substances released by plants), microbial pathogens, insects, or other organisms in the soil
  • Consumption of weed seeds by ground beetles, crickets, earthworms, slugs, field mice, birds, and other organisms (=weed seed predation)
  • Loss of viability or decay of seeds over time

The first type of withdrawal—germination leading to emergence—is, of course, how weeds begin to compete with and harm crops each season. It is also the foremost mechanism for debiting the seed bank, an effective strategy if emerged seedlings are easily killed by subsequent cultivation or flaming (the stale seedbed technique, for example). Even in species with relatively long-lived seeds such as pigweeds, velvetleaf, and morning glory, the vast majority of weed emergence from a given season’s seed rain takes place within two years after the seeds are shed (Egley and Williams, 1990). Thus, timely germination (when emerging weeds can be readily killed) can go far toward minimizing net deposits into the seed bank from recent weed seed shed. Knowing when to promote or deter weed seed germination, and how to do so for the major weeds present, are important skills in seed bank management.

Weed Seed Bank Dynamics

Weed seeds can reach the soil surface and become part of the soil seed bank through several avenues. The main source of weed seeds in the seed bank is from local matured weeds that set seed. Agricultural weeds can also enter a field on animals, wind, and water, as well as on machinery during activities like cultivation and harvesting (explored further in Keeping New Weedy Invaders Out of the Field).

Weed seeds can have numerous fates after they are dispersed into a field (Fig. 1). Some seeds germinate, emerge, grow, and produce more seeds; others germinate and die, decay in the soil, or fall to predation. The seeds and other propagules of most weeds have evolved mechanisms that render a portion (a large majority in some species) of propagules dormant (alive but not able to germinate) or conditionally dormant (will not germinate unless they receive specific stimuli such as light) for varying periods of time after they are shed. This helps the weed survive in a periodically disturbed, inhospitable, and unpredictable environment. Weed seeds can change from a state of dormancy to nondormancy, in which they can then germinate over a wide range of environmental conditions. Because dormant weed seeds can create future weed problems, weed scientists think of dormancy as a dispersal mechanism through time.

Figure 1. Fate of weed seeds. Inputs to the seed bank are shown with black arrows and losses with white arrows. Figure Credit: Fabian Menalled, MSU Extension, Montana State University.

Maintaining excellent weed control for several consecutive seasons can eliminate a large majority of the weed seed bank, but a small percentage of viable, highly dormant seeds persist, which can be difficult to eliminate (Egley, 1986). Researchers are seeking more effective means to flush out these dormant seeds through multiple stimuli (Egley, 1986).

Weed species also differ in the seasonal timing of their germination and emergence. Germination of many species is governed by growing degree–days (GDD)—the summation of the number of degrees that each day’s average temperature exceeds a base temperature. This concept is founded on the assumption that, below the base temperature, the organisms (in this case seeds) are quiescent, and that as “thermal time” accumulates above this temperature, their development proceeds. In addition, some newly shed weed seeds must first undergo a period of unfavorably cold or hot conditions before they can germinate in response to favorable temperatures. This initial, or primary, dormancy delays emergence until near the beginning of the next growing season—late spring for warm-season weeds (dormancy broken by cold period over winter), and fall for winter annual weeds (dormancy broken by hot period in summer)—when emerging weeds have the greatest likelihood of completing their life cycles and setting the next generation of seed.

The Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service has evaluated seed germination response of common weeds of field corn in relation to GDD calculated on a base temperature of 48°F beginning in early spring, and categorized the weeds into germination groups (cited in Davis, 2004). For example, winter annuals like field horsetail and shepherd’s purse germinate before any GDD accumulate in the spring; giant ragweed and common lambsquarters require fewer than 150 GDD and therefore emerge several weeks before corn planting; redroot pigweed, giant foxtail, and velvetleaf germinate at 150–300 GDD, close to corn planting time; whereas large crabgrass and fall panicum require over 350 GDD and usually emerge after the corn is up. A few species, such as giant ragweed, emerge only during a short (8 weeks). Knowing when the most abundant species in a particular field are likely to emerge can allow the farmer to adjust planting dates and cultivation schedules to the crop’s advantage.

Several factors other than mean daily soil temperature have a major impact on the timing of weed germination and emergence in the field. Adequate soil moisture is critical for germination, and good seed–soil contact is also important in facilitating the moisture uptake that is required to initiate the process. Thus more weeds may emerge from a firmed soil surface, such as occurs under planter press wheels, than from a loose, crumbly, or fluffy soil surface (Gallandt et al., 1999). For example, densities of common chickweed and common purslane in seeder tracks—in the crop rows—were roughly double those over the rest of the field, whereas annual grass weeds and yellow nutsedge did not show this pattern. (Caldwell and Mohler, 2001).

In addition, many weed seeds are also stimulated to germinate by light (even the very brief flash occasioned by daytime soil disturbance), fluctuations in temperature and moisture, or increases in oxygen or nitrate nitrogen (N) levels in the soil. Tillage, which exposes seeds to these stimuli, is therefore a critical determinant of seed germination. The timing of N fertilizer applications can also influence the number of weeds germinating. For example, many weed species can be stimulated by large increases in soluble N after incorporation of a legume cover crop, or inhibited by delayed applications of N fertilizer.

Shallow soil disturbance during periods of peak potential germination can be an effective tactic for debiting (drawing down) the weed seed bank (Egley, 1986). This phenomenon is exploited when timely cultivated fallow is used to reduce the weed seed bank, and in the establishment of a stale seedbed prior to planting. These tactics encourage the conditionally dormant portion of the seed bank to germinate so that the crop can be sown into a reduced initial weed population.

Weed seeds disperse both horizontally and vertically in the soil profile. While the horizontal distribution of weed seeds in the seed bank generally follow the direction of crop rows, type of tillage is the main factor determining the vertical distribution of weed seeds within the soil profile. In plowed fields, the majority of weed seeds are buried four to six inches below the surface (Cousens and Moss, 1990). Under reduced tillage systems such as chisel plowing, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the weed seeds are distributed in the top four inches. In no-till fields, the majority of weed seeds remain at or near the soil surface. Clements et al. (1996) have shown that soil texture may influence weed seed distribution in the soil profile under these different tillage systems (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Vertical distribution of weed seeds in a loamy sand soil (top) and a silty loam soil (bottom). Figure credit: adapted from Clements et al. (1996) by Fabian Menalled, MSU Extension, Montana State University.

Understanding the impact of management practices on the vertical distribution of seeds is important because it can help us predict weed emergence patterns. For example, in most soils small-seeded weeds such as kochia, Canada thistle, and common lambsquarters germinate at very shallow depths (less than ½ inch). Large seeded weeds such as common sunflower have more seed reserves and may germinate from greater depths.

Thus, one strategy for managing the weed seed bank, especially for smaller-seeded weeds, is to maintain seeds at or near the soil surface. It is here that seeds experience the greatest exposure to environmental cues that will encourage germination—the most effective means of debiting the seed bank—as well as greater exposure to seed predators (see Encouraging Weed Seed Predation and Decay). Studies have confirmed that some weed seeds, including velvetleaf, morning glory, and pigweed, germinate in larger numbers in untilled than in tilled soil during the first year after seed shed (Egley and Williams, 1990). It may be tempting to use inversion tillage to place seeds below the depth from which they can emerge. This may be an effective strategy for species with short-lived seeds (see below), but it may simply protect longer-lived seeds from mortality factors like seed feeding animals and decomposer fungi, only to be returned to the soil surface by the next deep plowing event.

Factors Affecting Weed Seed Longevity

The number of viable seeds remaining from a given year’s weed seed return declines over time as a result of germination (successful or fatal), predation, and decay. The percentage remaining declines in an approximately exponential manner, similar to the decay curve for a radioactive chemical element—the time for the number to decline by 50% is roughly the same, regardless of the initial num. The half-life of weed seeds varies widely among weed species; for example, hairy galinsoga and some annual grass weeds, such as foxtail species, last only one to a few years, whereas some curly dock and common lambsquarters seed can last over 50 years.

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The actual seed longevity in the soil depends on an interaction of many factors, including intrinsic dormancy of the seed population, depth of seed burial, frequency of disturbance, environmental conditions (light, moisture, temperature), and biological processes such as predation, allelopathy, and microbial attack (Davis et al., 2005; Liebman et al., 2001). Understanding how management practices or soil conditions can modify the residence time of viable seeds can help producers minimize future weed problems. For example, seeds of 20 weed species that were mixed into the top 6 inches of soil persisted longer in untilled soil than in soil tilled four times annually (Mohler, 2001a), which likely reflects greater germination losses in the disturbed treatment. On the other hand, a single tillage can enhance the longevity of recently-shed weed seeds, because buried seeds are usually more persistent compared to those left at the surface where they are exposed to predators, certain pathogens, and wide fluctuations of temperature and moisture. However, soilborne pathogens may also contribute to attrition of buried seeds, even in large-seeded species like velvetleaf (Davis and Renner, 2008).

Although seed longevity of agricultural weeds is a cause for notoriety, and a proportion of the population may remain viable for several years or decades, most of the seeds of many weed species will either germinate or die shortly after being dispersed from the parent plant. The seeds of many grasses are particularly short lived. For example, in a field study conducted near Bozeman, MT, wild oat seeds were incorporated into the top four inches of a wheat–fallow field, and approximately 80 percent of them died during the first winter (Harbuck, 2007). It is important to note, however, that postdispersal survival varies widely among weed species.

Evaluating the Weed Seed Bank

One way to estimate a field’s weed seed bank is to wait and see what weeds emerge during the first season. However, knowing something about seed bank content before the season starts can help the farmer prevent severe weed problems before they develop. Davis (2004) recommended the following simple procedure for scouting the weed seed bank:

A little effort in understanding your weed seedbank [sic] can give you valuable information about what weeds to expect in a given growing season, weed density, and when most weed germination will take place. To get a weed preview, you can germinate weeds indoors as you’re waiting to plant. For summer annual weeds, such as velvetleaf, foxtail, lambsquarters, and pigweed, March–April is a good time to sample weed seedbanks [sic] in the North Central region. Using a soil probe or a garden trowel, take 20 samples to a 2” depth in a ‘W’ pattern from the field you’re interested in. Place the soil in a pie dish, put in a warm place (> 65 º F) and keep moist. Within one to two weeks, you should have an idea of what weeds will be emerging in your field as the soil warms.

~ Davis, 2004

For a more representative sampling, collect sufficient soil samples to fill several pie dishes, or a seedling flat. The larger the sample, the more closely the observed weed emergence will reflect field populations.

Keep in mind that this method is not likely to reveal all the species present in a field. However, in combination with field observations on seasonal patterns of weed emergence, greenhouse weed emergence tests can help anticipate when control tactics are likely to be needed in the coming season, and to begin developing a seed bank management strategy.

Some Weed Seed Bank Management Practices

Use these strategies to minimize annual inputs (deposits) to the weed seed bank:

  • Kill weeds before they set seed—before flowering to be safe, because some weeds (such as hairy galinsoga) can mature seeds from flowers that are pollinated before the weeds are pulled or severed . If in doubt, attempt to thresh the seeds from the fruits or flowers of flowering weeds; dough-consistency and firm seeds can be considered mature and should be removed from the field if possible.
  • Control creeping perennial weeds before they can form new rhizomes, tubers, or other propagules.
  • Keep crops ahead of the weeds—small weeds overshadowed by a good crop canopy may have less than 1% of the seed forming capacity of vigorous individuals growing in full sun.
  • Walk fields to remove large weed escapes before they flower. Getting the largest 10% of individuals can reduce seed production by 90% or better.
  • Mow field margins to minimize seed set by weed species that have the potential to invade fields. (Balance this with the potential role of field margins as beneficial insect habitat).
  • Mow or graze fields promptly after harvest to interrupt weed seed production.
  • Utilize good sanitation practices to prevent introduction of new weed species into the field, and remove new invaders before they propagate.

Another measure that can help contain seed bank populations is to increase the diversity of crop rotations. Although data on the effects of crop rotations on weed seed banks in organic systems have not been consistent, there is some evidence suggesting that more diverse rotations, especially those that include one or more years in red clover, alfalfa, or other perennial sod crops, can help reduce seed inputs from velvetleaf and other annual weeds, and promote seed bank declines through seed predation and decay (Davis et al., 2005; Teasdale et al., 2004; Westerman et al., 2005).

Use these strategies to maximize losses (withdrawals) from the weed seed bank:

  • Till or cultivate to stimulate weed seed germination at a time when the seedlings can be easily knocked out by additional cultivation or flaming (stale seedbed), or will be freeze-killed before they can reproduce. Rolling after tillage can further enhance germination by improving seed–soil contact.
  • If practical, time this tillage or cultivation to take place when seeds of the major weeds present are least dormant, and/or during the season of the weeds’ peak emergence, in order to maximize the seed bank withdrawal.
  • Time crop planting to facilitate destruction of flushes of weed seedling emergence. For example, if the major weeds in a given field are known to reach their peak emergence in mid May, delay corn planting until end of May to allow time to remove this flush prior to planting.
  • Maintain habitat for weed seed predators—vegetation or mulch cover—in at least part of the field for as much of the year as practical.
  • Reduce or avoid tillage during critical times for weed seed predator activity. If a significant weed seed rain has occurred, leave weed seeds at the surface for a period of time before tilling to maximize weed seed predation.

Because soil microorganisms can play a role in weed seed decay, maintaining a high level of soil biological activity through good organic soil management might be expected to shorten the half-life of weed seed banks. In addition, incorporation of a succulent legume or other cover crop may either stimulate weed seed germination by enhancing soil nitrate N levels, or promote weed seed or seedling decay as a result of the “feeding frenzy” of soil microorganisms on the green manure residues. However, the potential of these practices as weed seed bank management tools requires verification through further research.

While it is sometimes advantageous to cause weed seeds to germinate, it is important at other times to keep them quiescent long enough for the crop to get well established. Several practices can help reduce the number of weeds emerging in the crop.

  • Cultivate at night or with light shields over the cultivation implement to minimize the light stimulus to weed seeds.
  • Leave a loose soil surface after planting or cultivation to reduce seed–soil contact for near-surface weed seeds, thereby deterring germination. If practical, cover newly seeded rows with loose soil to reduce within-row weed emergence.
  • Minimize soil disturbance at or near the time of planting. Do major tillage in fall or very early spring several weeks before planting. Use flame or very shallow cultivation to prepare the seedbed.
  • Avoid practices that result in early pulses of nitrogen that may stimulate weed emergence. Use split N fertilizer applications and slow releasing forms of N, such as compost and legume–grass cover crop mixtures) to make N availability patterns over the season match N needs of the crop rather than the weeds.
  • Avoid planting crops in fields with heavy populations of weeds with similar life cycles. For example, fields dominated by late emerging summer annual weeds might best be planted in early crops like peas.
  • Time crop planting to take place well before the most abundant weed species in the field are expected to emerge.
  • Time crop planting to take place after the expected major weed seedling flushes, and remove the latter by shallow cultivation or flame weeding.
  • Invert the soil to a depth from which weed seeds cannot emerge (most effective for weeds with small, short-lived seeds).

Incorporated green manures or surface residues of cover crops can reduce the establishment of small-seeded weeds through allelopathy and/or physical hindrance. Thus, these practices can provide a measure of selective weed control for transplanted or large-seeded crops, which are tolerant to the stresses imposed by cover crop residues. This selectivity does not apply to small-seeded, direct sown vegetables like carrots and salad greens, which are at least as sensitive to these cover crop effects as small-seeded weeds.

Challenge of Weed Seed Bank Diversity

Remember that none of these strategies can be expected to eliminate the weed seed bank, and also that you may need to change seed bank management strategy as the seed bank itself changes. The reason the weed seed bank is so difficult to manage is because it contains not only many seeds, but many different kinds of seeds, with typically 20 to 50 different weed species in a single field. In other words, the grower may have to deal with 20 to 50 different plant survival strategies! Thus, there will almost always be some weeds that tolerate, or even thrive on, whatever combination of seed bank management strategies the farmer adopts.

For example, some but not all weed species have light-responsive seeds, and dark cultivation reduces emergence only in the light responders. Similarly, careful nitrogen (N) management can reduce problems with nitrate responders but have no effect on nonresponders and could even favor a weed that is well adapted to low levels of soluble N. The best approach to weed seed bank management is to design your strategy around the four or five most serious weeds present, then monitor changes in the weed flora over time, noting what new weed species emerge as the original target weed species decline. Then change your seed bank management strategy accordingly. Plan on making such adjustments every few years, and if possible, keep a sense of curiosity and humor about the weeds!

This article is part of a series on Twelve Steps Toward Ecological Weed Management in Organic Vegetables. For more on managing the weed seed bank, see:

References and Citations

  • Brainard, D. C., R. R. Bellinder, R. R. Hahn, and D. A. Shah. 2008. Crop rotation, cover crop and weed management effects on weed seedbanks and yields in snap bean, sweet corn and cabbage. Weed Science 56: 434–441. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Burnside, O. C., R. G. Wilson, G. A. Wicks, F. W. Roeth, and R. S. Moomaw. 1986. Weed seed decline and buildup under various corn management systems in Nebraska. Agronomy Journal 78: 451–454. (Available online at: (verified 4 April 2011).
  • Caldwell, B., and C. L. Mohler. 2001. Stale seedbed practices for vegetable production. HortScience 36: 703–705.
  • Clements, D. R., D. L. Benoit, and C. J. Swanton. 1996. Tillage effects on weed seed return and seedbank composition. Weed Science 44: 314–322. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Cousens, R., and S. R. Moss. 1990. A model of the effects of cultivations on the vertical distribution of weed seeds within the soil. Weed Research 30: 61–70. (Available online at: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.1990.tb01688.x ) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S. 2004. Managing weed seedbanks throughout the growing season [Online]. New Agriculture Network Vol. 1 No. 2.
  • Davis, A. S., J. Cardina, F. Forcella, G. A. Johnson, G. K, J. L. Lindquist, E. C. Lusheri, K. A. Renner, C. L. Sprague, and M. M. Williams. 2005. Environmental factors affecting seed persistence of annual weeds across the US corn belt. Weed Science 53: 860–868. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S., and K. A. Renner. 2006. Influence of seed depth and pathogens on fatal germination of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi). Weed Science 55: 30–35. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S., K. A. Renner, and K. L. Gross. 2005. Weed seedbank and community shifts in a long-term cropping systems experiment. Weed Science 53: 296–306. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).
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  • Forcella, F. 2003. Debiting the seedbank: Priorities and predictions. p. 151–162. In R. M. Bekker et al. (ed.) Seedbanks: Determination, dynamics and management. Aspects of Applied Biology 69. Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, UK.
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  • Westerman, P. R., M. Liebman, F. D. Menalled, A. H. Heggenstaller, R. G. Hartzler, and P. M. Dixon. 2005. Are many little hammers effective? Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) poplution dynamics in two- and four-year crop rotation systems. Weed Science 53: 382–392. (Available online at: (verified 23 March 2010).

Published August 20, 2013

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic’s articles on organic certification.

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