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Sydney funnel web cannabis female seeds

Sydney funnel web cannabis female seeds

Researchers discovered that a plant invasive in at least 48 countries across India, Australia, and parts of Africa could escalate the spread of malaria. The so-called famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus) infests disturbed land, roadsides, pastures, and farmlands. It causes a loss of yield in crops and is toxic to both humans and livestock. The weed thrives in warmer climates, is a native of north-east Mexico, and is endemic in America.

The plant releases chemicals called terpene from their roots that have fragrances that attract malaria carrying mosquitos (Anopheles gambiae). The adult female mosquitoes feed on the weed for the sugars, which provide them with the vital energy required for flight, mating/reproduction, and acquiring a blood meal (required for developing eggs). Female adult mosquitoes that emerge from breeding sites contaminated with famine weed chemicals emerged sooner and tended to live longer (11-12 days), increasing the likelihood to transmit the malaria parasite. Researchers also found that pregnant (gravid) females preferred laying their eggs in water treated with a blend of terpenes extracted from the famine weed roots.

The weed can be removed by the root, but it spreads rapidly via small seeds, making it hard to control and keep up with. Herbicides are also effective, but specialists caution that increased use of chemicals could become hazardous to the environment. There are two biological control agents that are available for famine weed depending on environmental conditions and habitat that could help minimize spread: stem-boring weevil (Listronotus setosipennis) and the leaf-feeding beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) Researchers are optimistic that they may be able to exploit the fragrances produced by the roots of the famine weed to develop trapping tools to better target egg laying female mosquitoes and further the efforts of disease surveillance and control.

Famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus). Credit: Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental.

Time to pupation (days) for malaria carrying mosquitos larvae (Anopheles gambiae) exposed to root exudate water relative to soil water. Credit: Milugo et al., 2021

Invasive mussels are a constant problem across many freshwater systems from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. Zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) first arrived in the Great Lakes about three decades ago after hitching a ride from Eastern Europe. Since then, there have been several removal methods initiated and education campaigns launched to inform the public of the dangers of these aquatic dwellers. Some control methods may work for a small number of adults found on a fixed structure, but larger populations are harder to manage, and spread in open waters is unpredictable. Chemicals and molluscicide can often be toxic to native mussels, many of which are threatened or endangered.

Scientists are now studying methods of genetic control. This would allow for targeted treatments in infested waters without the worry of affecting other organisms. The plan is to use RNAi or RNA interference to “turn off” a targeted gene. RNA can act as a translator, helping convert the information stored in a cell’s DNA into proteins essential to the body’s function. RNA interference would block this process. RNAi research has led to the treatment for rare genetic diseases in humans, and research which involved injecting double-stranded RNA in the nematode worm won scientists a Nobel Prize in 2006.

Using RNAi as a biocontrol with zebra mussels is in its early stages, having started this year, but researchers believe that with the help of the genome that was mapped out in 2019, they can target certain genes. Some potential target genes are those that allow mussels to spread and survive, produce shell formation, and produce the threads that attach the mussels to a surface. The researchers believe they could also target the genes that predict stress responses, such as temperature and toxin tolerance.

To introduce the RNAi to the mussels, researchers would engineer a food source like bacteria or algae. The food could then be distributed to the mussels in a similar fashion as that of molluscicide, which involves a frame and tarp system to pump the chemical or “food” underwater.

Other scientists are considering a different approach for quagga mussels: read more here.

Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are an invasive species that have been causing population control problems in native fish populations in the Great Lakes for decades. Thanks to barriers, traps, sterilization, and lampricides the problem is not as bad as it was; however, scientists are still looking for ways to keep lamprey numbers down.

This fish has no bones and no jaw, but feeds by latching onto another fish with its unique suction cup mouth. When a lamprey approaches a surface, its annular muscle contracts and the buccal funnel spreads over that surface. A tooth-studded oral disc conforms to that surface, creating a seal, an armed tongue then retracts into the oral passage and seals off the buccal funnel from the pharyngeal cavity. This forms a partial vacuum inside the cavity and a suction force is created, maintaining suction attachment. Once the tongue protracts, the vacuum pressure spreads into the buccal cavity forming a stronger suction. However, scientists were curious about the control and conservation of the suction patterns of the lamprey.

In a study at Michigan State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, researchers constructed “smart” panels to measure the oral suction pressure. With the device, they were able to describe the suction dynamics of juvenile and adult sea lampreys at multiple locations within the mouth. They found the suction dynamics were uniform all the way around the mouth, but that the suction pressure varied. They also found suction was not consistent, but rather occurred in intermittent cycles. They also found suction pressure increased significantly when trying to remove the lamprey. They found that the torpidity of water did not seem to affect the suction dynamics or pressure.

Researchers believe knowing the characteristics of the lamprey’s suction could be useful in the development of devices that detect, record, or respond to the presence of sea lampreys at a time or place.

Adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) attached to the sensing panel at the sensing port in a water-filled tank. Credit: Shi et al., 2021

Left- View of an adult sea lamprey attached to the sensing panel with its mouth covering all the 9 sensing ports, Right- a schematic of the 9 ports. Credit: Shi et al., 2021

The avian vampire fly (Philornis downsi) was accidentally introduced to the Floeana Island of the Galapagos in the 1960s. Since then, it has spread across the islands, causing an increase in mortality rates of land bird offspring. The larvae of the fly feeds on the blood and tissue of the nesting birds, especially feeding around the inside of the birds’ nostrils. Recent studies have shown how Darwin’s finches are dealing with the parasitic fly, and how these behaviors may be pivotal for further insights into evolutionary pathways of introduced parasites.

One study, Common et al., 2021, examined which of Darwin’s finches seems to be the most successful host to the avian vampire fly. The parasite seemed to be the most abundant in the nests of the endangered medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper) and the least abundant in the nests of the hybrid tree finches (Camarhynchus spp.). Since the arrival of the vampire fly, medium tree finches have started interbreeding with small tree finches, forming hybrid populations. Researchers believe that this hybridization may be a defense strategy against the parasites since they see a much lower number of parasites in the nests of hybrids. There was also a low abundance of parasite activity in the nests of small tree (Camarhynchus parvulus) and small ground finches (Geospiza fuliginosa). These findings lead researchers to believe avian vampire fly survival across different hosts could evolve toward host specialization.

A second study, Katsis et al., 2021, examined how small ground finches (Geospiza fuliginosa) coped with being infected with the avian vampire flies. Researchers found that nestlings exposed to parasites had larger nares (nostrils), and that older nestlings exhibited a lower body mass. They also analyzed behavior to predict the severity of naris deformation. The researchers did this by handling the nestlings. When faced with high parasite infestations, more responsive nestlings had larger, more deformed nares compared to the more docile nestlings. These findings suggest the more responsive nestlings suffer greater fitness costs due to the parasitism. The researchers believe that one reason for this could be that more “vigorous” nestlings are attracting parasite larvae. They believe they may start to see the survival rate of docile nestlings increase, resulting in more surviving to adulthood- potentially changing the behavioral traits of small ground finches at a population level.

Avian vampire fly (Philornis downsi). Top- larvae, Middle- Dorsal view of adult, Bottom- lateral view of adult. Credit: Bulgarella et al., 2015

Six-day-old small ground finch nestling (Geospiza fuliginosa) with deformed nares due to parasite nest infestation. Credit: Katsis et al., 2021

Are You Eating My Crops? 4 of 12

The sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) is one of the most devastation pests of wheat in the Middle East, and is the fourth headliner in our 12-month series called ‘Are you eating my crops?’. Individual pests chosen for this series have not yet been reported in Texas, but are on the ‘Watch List’ due to their high level of pest importance or risk due to host availability. During this series we will cover several different crop pests, what to look for, what they look like, and where you can find more information about them. If you ever have question or concerns regarding the headliners of this section, feel free to email [email protected]

The sunn pest, sometimes called the cereal bug or wheat shield bug, is a semi-elongated oval shaped bug, about 10-12mm long and 6.1- 7.1 mm wide, with a shield shaped pronotum. The upper surface is slightly concave with a large scutellum that covers almost the entire abdomen. The coloration is highly variable and has no taxonomic value, ranging from gray to creamy brown, to reddish or black. The sunn pest has five instars or nymph stages that are all spherical in shape, but variable in size. The first instar is small, 1.5mm in diameter, and light in color. It becomes black as the exoskeleton hardens. Nymphs are colored similarly to the adults except with 2-3 paired black dots midway between the lateral margin and midline of the abdomen. The eggs are spherical and about 1mm in diameter. They start out as a light green color and nearly translucent, but become dark as the embryo develops, eventually becoming pink with an orange, anchor-shaped mark.

One generation occurs per year. Inactive adults spend the winter and summer months in leaf litter and dense low growing vegetation. The lifecycle begins when overwintering females migrate small grain fields to feed and oviposit. Eggs hatch during the spring and first instar nymphs remain clustered around the eggs. Once the second instar emerge, the nymphs become more active, feeding on the leaves of the plant. Young adults will feed on the developing host plant until they are ready for migration and hibernation.

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Wheat is damaged most by the sunn pest, but barley and other cereal and small grains are known to be damaged by pest activity. Nymphs prefer to feed on young leaves, while adults prefer to feed on kernels and ears, which stunts growth and plant development. Damage can be at its worst when overwintering adults feet on young wheat plants. In some areas, crop loss can be as much as 25-100% depending on the severity of the outbreak and if there is an absence of control measures. Chemical control is difficult and not environmentally sustainable.

Wheat is one of the most important crops in the U.S. and sunn pest would be detrimental agriculturally and economically if this pest becomes established in the U.S. To read more about the sunn pest, see the USDA fact sheet.

Top- sunn pest eggs, Bottom- nymph hatching form eggs, note darkening of eggs and anchor-shaped mark. Credit: ICARDA CC 3.0

On July 7, 2021, Customs and Border Protection agriculture specialists at the Pharr cargo facility, Pharr, Texas, conducted an inspection on a commercial shipment of fresh vegetables arriving from Mexico. While inspecting a box of jackfruit, a live pest was discovered. The pest was submitted for identification to a U.S. Department of Agriculture entomology laboratory and was later confirmed as Cyclocephala forcipulata, a scarab beetle found Mexico. If accidently introduced, scarab pests can cause agricultural and economic damage as their larvae eat plant roots and adults feed on the aerial parts of plants. This is the first time this pest has ever been discovered at any of the nation’s posts of entry. The shipment was refused entry and returned to Mexico.

WLS is a one-day FREE gardening event featuring live music, children’s activities, hands-on demonstrations, and top-quality presentations. WLS provides a venue for local gardening experts to share tips and tools to help residential landscapes of any size and shape become more water-wise and earth-friendly. Attendees can purchase native plants, compost bins, rain barrels and more.

Saturday, September 25, 2021
9 a.m. – Noon
The Recreation Center at Rob Fleming Park, Woodlands, Texas

**TexasInvasive.org will be hosting an education booth at the event. Our booth will feature ways to identify and remove invasive plants in your area, and discuss how to reduce invasive slug and flatworm populations that can harm your yard. We hope to see you there!

This program is designed to provide the education needed for professionals and students who are managing or learning to manage invasive species. The courses include the most current invasive species identification, control and management techniques, and how to comply with local and federal regulations.

Participants may register and enroll at any time, and will receive a certificate of invasive species management from NAISMA upon completion of the program.

All live webinars are open to the public. Recorded webinars are available to members of NAISMA.

  • September 15, 1pm- Flowering Rush Biology, Management, and Control. REGISTER.
  • October 20, 1pm- Forestry BMPs for Invasive Species. REGISTER.
  • November 17, 1pm- USGS and USFWS collaborative project to conduct a national horizon scan for organisms in trade. REGISTER.

The 2021 Invasive Species Research Conference will take place virtually in an online event portal. Learn about current and published research from over 40 presenters in a variety of themed sessions. The event will also facilitate connections between invasive species researchers and practitioners in the Pacific Northwest.

October 5-7, 2021

Click here for more information or to register.

Invasive Spotlight:

Hydrilla
(Hydrilla verticillata)

Hydrilla is an aquatic perennial plant that grows submersed underwater. It is considered one of the world’s worst invasive plants. It can quickly form dense underwater stands that raise water pH and temperature, and lower dissolved oxygen, which can affect populations of fish and other organisms. The dense mats provide a perfect mosquito habitat. It can make it difficult to boat, fish, and swim, and can potentially clog dams and water intake systems. Typically, rooted hydrilla have slender ascending branched stems up to 9 m (30 ft) long. Its leaves are small and pointed, 2-4 mm (0.1-0.2 in) wide and 6-20 mm (0.2-0.8 in) long, arranged in whorls of 4-8 leaves, bearing visible serrated teeth along the margins. Usually 1-4 small conical red bumps, or teeth, are evident along the underside midrib. It is easy to confuse hydrilla with native elodea (Elodea canadensis) and non-native Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa). However, neither has bumps or sharp teeth along the leaf’s underside midrib. Elodea leaf margins are smooth and waterweed leaves are longer, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) long, with minute teeth on the underside midrib.

Interestingly, hydrilla plants exists as both monoecious and dioecious. Monoecious is when one produces separate “male” and “female” flowers on the same plant, and dioecious is when each plant produces only either “male” or “female” flowers. Only the dioecious type grows in Texas, and because it produces only “female” flowers, it cannot reproduce by seed. The whitish or translucent 3-petaled-&-3-sepaled flowers are tiny, 15-30 mm (0.0625-0.125 in) in diameter, and float on threadlike stalks that are up to 10 cm (4 in) long.

Fleshy buds called turions often form at leaf axils. They look like pinecones and grow up to 5 cm (2 in) long. Hydrilla also forms tubers among its roots. No other submersed species produces these structures. Both turions and tubers, along with stem fragments, act as dispersal units that can grow into new individuals.

Hydrilla is on the federal and TDA noxious weed lists, and TPWD regulated invasive plant list, yet it continues to be sold through aquarium supply dealers and over the internet. It is found in lakes, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, and ditches. It can cover hundreds of acres if left unchecked. Hydrilla is now found across the eastern US from Texas to Maine and is especially widespread in coastal states. Hydrilla is also found in several western states. The USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database point map allows you to see the distributions of both.

If you believe you have identified a suspected hydrilla, please take a picture and REPORT IT! to [email protected]

Dense mat of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Credit: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut.

Hydrilla. Credit: Robert Videki, Doronicum Kft. Note serrated teeth along edge of leaves.

Opportunities To Get Involved
Looking for participants for the following surveys:

Citrus Greening Workshops

We need your help to safeguard Texas Citrus, and it can start in your backyard!

TISI is offering educational workshops focused on the Asian citrus psyllid and the pathogen Citrus Greening. The Asian citrus psyllid and the Citrus Greening pathogen is threatening citrus in multiple Texas counties, and we need your help to monitor the spread. The workshop will highlight what you need to look out for, address USDA-APHIS Citrus Quarantines, and offer diagnostic services if you suspect your backyard citrus has either the psyllid pest or Citrus Greening pathogen. This includes providing trapping materials, assisting with management strategies, and more.

Please contact [email protected] so we can schedule a workshop (virtual or in-person) for you or your group this year!

Aquarium Watch: Looking for Prohibited Invasive Aquatic Species

Please help texasinvasives.org and natural habitats by looking for 14 prohibited invasive aquatic species being sold in your local aquarium store. With just one photo you can assist us in finding and documenting which stores are selling prohibited species. Texasinvasives.org will contact the appropriate Texas institutions to remove the species for sale.

If you would like more information please email [email protected], and mention you want to assist with our Aquarium Watch.

Leaf mottle on grapefruit, a characteristic symptom caused by citrus greening bacterium but also seen on trees infected by Spiroplasma citri. Credit: J.M. Bove.

Weed out invasive annual grasses to keep Texas looking like Texas
The introduction and invasion of Mediterranean annual grasses are pushing out natives and leaving grasslands with a low forage value. Is this becoming the new normal or is there a way to stop the spread of invasives and recover Texas grasslands? sanantonioreport.org

US Influence on Australia’s Illegal Pet Trade
The transnational smuggling of live animals poses a threat to Australia’s biodiversity, conservation, environmental biosecurity, animal welfare, and human health and wellbeing. Researchers suggest that the unregulated trade of exotic pets in the U.S and other Western Countries has a major influence on Australians’ desire for illegal pets. phys.org

Invasive Plants Are Still for Sale as Garden Ornamentals, Research Shows
Ecologists show that 1,330 nurseries, garden centers and online retailers are still selling invasive plant species as ornamental garden plants. This includes 20 species that are illegal to grow or sell nationwide. sciencedaily.com

Survey Suggests Climate Change Has Reduced the Presence of Invasive Argentine Ants
Decades of invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) data has yielded surprising results, suggesting that the distribution has receded, and that climate change was a significant factor on the change. phys.org

In Fight Against Invasive Carp, Scientists Explore New Frontier: Track the Babies
Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri are studying the complex way invasive carp eggs move in rivers, in hopes they can kill them while still young. phys.org

In the Absence of Genetic Variation, Asexual Invasive Species Find New Methods of Adapting to Their Environment
New research has found that two types of weevils (Naupactus cervinus and N. leucoloma), invasive in many parts of the world, have been using epigenetic changes to adapt and respond to different toxins in the plants they eat. The findings have implications for how we consider asexual invaders and how successful they can be. sciencedaily.com

Tool Predicts Which Native Fish Species Are Most at Risk from Lionfish Predators
Due to the growing concern regarding the spread of invasive lionfish (Pterois folitans) populations, researchers have created a tool to predict which fish are in the most danger of decline if, or when, the invasive predators arrive in their waters. phys.org

Raccoon dogs pose a particular threat to ground-nesting birds in Northern Europe
Artificial nest experiments demonstrated that the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), an alien species abundant in Finland, is a common duck nest predator. Racoon dogs laid waste to nests on shorelines, forests, rural landscapes, and urban areas. sciencedaily.com

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How the African House Gecko Made Its Way to the New World
Researchers have found evidence that the African house gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia), now considered an invasive species, made its way to the New Worlds hundreds of years ago, aboard slave trading ships. phys.org

Invasive Cane Toads Found to Use Cannibalism to Improve Their Chances of Survival in New Areas
A team of researchers at the University of Sydney, Australia has found that invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) tadpoles have given their species an advantage by eating the hatchlings of native toads. phys.org

If you would like to highlight a successful invasive species project or nominate a special person to be highlighted in an upcoming iWire, please send the details to [email protected]

Citizen Scientists Spotlight

Citizen Scientists In The Galapagos

Citizen Scientists have rallied again. Seventy-four Galapagos residents were hired and trained to sample the genetic diversity across the small island chain. This is the first science project in the Galapagos to incorporate its citizens! The Barcode Galapagos Project uses local people to gather, prepare, and process samples in DNA sequencing machines set up in three laboratories on the island. They are making a genetic catalog of the biodiversity of the Galapagos and quantifying the variation of each species based on its geographical isolation. Citizen Scientists search the soil and the water for samples of island plant and animal life, big and small, to determine short DNA sequences of thousands of species that can be compared to similar species all over the world. The Charles Darwin Scientific Station has registered 10.659 species, both endemic and introduced, including mammals, bonefish, snakes, fungi, plants, plankton, and bacteria. Researchers say that 30-40% of the species they have sampled so far do not match any of those in a global gene bank. The project is scheduled to end in November 2021, but by then the hope is to have a full catalog of the islands information to help identify new species, fight illegal trafficking and fight invasive species.

The project involves researchers from Ecuador’s University of San Francisco; the University of Exeter in England, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Galapagos Science Center. Funding has come from U.K. Research and Innovation through the Global Challenges Research Fund and the Newton Fund.

Scientists walk with locals as they collect plant samples to extract its DNA as part of the Barcode Galapagos project in the island of San Cristobal, Galapagos. Credit: AP Photo, Dolores Ochoe.

Farmer and tour guide extract soil samples to be analyzed in a laboratory as they assist scientists in collecting plant samples to extract its DNA as part of the Barcode Galapagos project in the island of San Cristobal, Galapagos.

Invaders of Texas workshops train volunteers to detect and report invasive species as citizen scientists. Workshops, which are free, are designed to introduce participants to invasive species and the problems they cause, cover aspects of invasive species management, teach identification of local invasive plants, and train participants to report invasive plants using the TX Invaders mobile application. The workshop is 7 hours long (usually on a Saturday, but scheduling is arranged with each individual host group). The workshop satisfies Master Naturalist training requirements.

Sentinel Pest Network workshops serve to increase the awareness and early detection of a set of particularly important invasive species to help prevent their spread into Texas or their further spread within Texas. Participants learn to identify species such as the Emerald Ash Borer, Cactus Moth, Asian Longhorned Beetle, and other pests of regulatory significance, and to report them. The workshop is 3.5 hours long. The workshop satisfies Master Naturalist training requirements.

-None-

For more information or to register to attend a free workshop, please visit the Workshop Page.

Funnel-Web Spider Control in your garden

Spiders are among the most feared and misunderstood animals on earth. Spider phobia (arachnophobia) is a real thing for some people, and it is not helped by sensationalist media reporting. Funnel-web Spiders top the list of the most feared spiders in Australia.

There are 35 species of spiders in Australia which are described as ‘funnel-webs’ (subfamily Atracinae). They are found in eastern Australia – including parts of Tasmania and South Australia. Funnel-web Spiders do not occur in Western Australia or the Northern Territory.

The most notorious funnel-web is the Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus) which is considered to be the deadliest spider in the world. From 1927-1980, 14 deaths were reported due to Sydney Funnel-Web Spider bites. No deaths have been reported since the development of antivenom in 1981.

Best treatment for Funnel-Web Spider Bites

Call Triple Zero (000).

Keep the patient calm and don’t move them unless necessary.

Apply a broad bandage firmly to the bite area and just below it. Bandage firmly up the length of the limb towards the heart and immobilise the limb with a wooden splint.

Ensure airway, breathing and circulation are maintained.

What are Funnel-Web Spiders and How to Get Rid of Them

Funnel-web spiders are part of a group of spiders known as mygalomorphs. This group includes other spiders such as Trapdoor Spiders and Mouse Spiders that may be confused with Funnel-web Spiders.

What differentiates mygalomorph spiders from all other spiders is their fangs. Mygalomorph fangs are parallel and are designed for striking downwards and pinning prey down. The fangs of all other spiders point sideways towards each other.

The name ‘funnel-web’ spider is derived from the shape of the web burrow created by the spider. The burrow may be in the ground, under bark in tree stumps or living trees, or under rotting logs depending on the species. Funnel-web Spiders spend their day at the bottom of their webbed burrows and come up to the entrance at night where they wait for prey.

The Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus) is found within a 160km radius of Sydney. Australia’s most populous city is right in the middle of the spider’s territory. This explains why bites from this spider are reported more frequently than bites from most other spiders.

Another significant species of Funnel-web Spiders is the Northern Tree Funnel-web (Hadronyche formidabilis) which occurs from SE Queensland to the Hunter River in NSW. It is the largest Funnel-web – the female has a body length of 50 mm. This spider is also dangerous to humans, and bites may result in severe symptoms similar to those of the Sydney Funnel-web.

Australian Funnel-web Spiders are usually black in colour, and very shiny on the thorax and legs. Their body length varies from about 15 mm to 50 mm depending on the species, with the female being the larger of the genders. For example, the female Sydney Funnel-web Spider has a body length of about 35 mm while the male has a body length of about 25 mm.

Funnel-web burrows usually occur in moist, cool, sheltered areas. You won’t find them in the middle of a sunlit lawn. The most characteristic sign of a Funnel-web Spider’s burrow is the easily visible silk trip-lines that radiate out from the burrow entrance of most species – including the tree dwelling ones. The trip-lines are used by the concealed spider to detect passing prey.

The Northern Tree Funnel-web Spider lives, as the name suggest, in trees. Burrows of this spider have been recorded high up in trees about 30 meters above the ground. They and other species of Tree Funnel-webs make silk-lined retreats in holes and rot-crevices in a variety of trees. They usually disguise the burrow entrance with bark or wood particles. Visible trip-lines are usually seen radiating out across the bark of the tree. There also may be more than one entrance.

Trapdoor Spiders, which may be confused with Funnel-web Spiders, are usually dark brown in colour. Some Trapdoor Spiders have lids on their burrows while others have an open burrow. Lid or no lid, the trip-lines of Trapdoor Spider burrows are much less obvious than those of Funnel-web Spiders.

Mouse Spiders are usually brown-black in colour and more compact in shape than Funnel-webs. They dig burrows in the ground but once again don’t have obvious radiating trip-lines like Funnel-webs. Recently, researchers demonstrated that Mouse Spider venom is similar to Funnel-web spider venom. In rare cases where the reaction was severe, Mouse Spider bites have been treated successfully with Funnel-web Spider antivenom.

Male Funnel-web Spiders come out of their burrows in spring to search for females to mate with. This is when they may wander into houses or topple into swimming pools. Male Funnel-web Spiders are considered to be more dangerous than females for two reasons: they are encountered more often, and male venom is more toxic than female venom. Recent research suggests that males evolved powerful venom to protect themselves from vertebrate predators. Researchers described the lethal effects of male Funnel-web Spider venom on humans as an ‘unfortunate evolutionary coincidence’.

After mating, females return to their burrow to lay up to 100 eggs, which hatch after a few weeks. The spiderlings remain in the maternal burrow for a few months during which they moult a couple of times growing larger each time. They then leave the maternal burrow to start burrows of their own. The spiderlings reach sexual maturity after about 5 years. Mature males only survive one mating season, while mature females may live for 20 years.

Funnel-web Spiders can’t swim, but they can survive for hours floating in a pool, or even if they sink to the bottom. They can trap small bubbles of air in hairs around the abdomen, which helps them breathe. Funnel-webs have been known to survive more than 24 hours under water.

Symptoms of Funnel-Web Spider Presence

Despite their name, the web of a Funnel-web Spider is rarely funnel-shaped and looks more like a long tube or a sock. The visible entrance to a burrow is usually oval with a mesh of trip-lines radiating out from it.

Funnel-web Spider bite symptoms

The bite site may be painful and fang marks are usually seen. Other symptoms include:

Common neighbourhood spiders

Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review.

There are many hundreds of species of spiders in Australia which play a beneficial role in our environment by eating insect pests. Unfortunately an emphasis has been put on the fact that spiders are poisonous and we forget that very few spiders are actually harmful.

So impressive is their ability to catch insects that it is estimated that the weight of insects eaten annually by spiders outweighs the total weight of the entire human population.

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This webpage replaces Garden Note No. 07

Blackhousespider chafer.JPG

WolfspiderLangham.JPG

Spiders are not insects but are in the class Arachnida and unlike insects they do not spread disease or plunder our food supplies. Spiders have only two body parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen, and eight legs instead of six. All spiders spin silk, but not all build webs for the purpose of catching prey. Spiders such as the common wolf spider run down their prey and a trapdoor spider lays in wait in its burrow awaiting prey to pass by.

In Western Australia, the only spider proven to be lethal is the red-back spider. There has been an effective antivenene for this spider since 1956 and there have been no deaths from a red-back spider bite in Australia since 1955. We also have many species of the large trapdoor spiders and, although venomous, none of these are considered life threatening. We do not have the deadly funnel-web spider in this state.

Red-back spiders

Red-back spiders, Lactrodectus hasselti, are common and found throughout Australia. They are seen mostly in disturbed areas and seem to like living near humans. They nest in dry, sheltered areas where they build messy tangled webs with sticky tracer leads going to the ground that “crackle” if you run a stick through them.

The female is easily identified with her long delicate front legs and a red or orange stripe on her pea-shaped abdomen. She also has a red or orange hourglass shape on her underside. Only the female is considered dangerous but is generally a timid spider, biting only in defence or when disturbed. The male is very small, and his fangs are unable to penetrate human skin. Very often the male will be taken by the female as a meal during mating. Our red-back is the same spider as the black widow of north America.

Although red-back spider bites are usually immediately painful, the venom (which contains neurotoxins) works very slowly. Bites can result in headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, hypertension and, in severe cases, paralysis.

Untreated, the symptoms worsen over a 24-hour period and may take weeks or months to heal. Red-back spider bites are the commonest poisonous bites requiring treatment in Australia, particularly over the summer months.

Trapdoor spiders

Trapdoor spiders, Mygalomorphae, are also common throughout Australia. These are the old-world or primitive spiders (mygalomorphs) having downward-pointing parallel fangs instead of the more typical pincerlike fangs. This is why they rear up in an apparently aggressive manner when threatened. Trapdoors are not aggressive spiders and spend the majority of their normally retiring lives in their burrows.

Males will wander temporarily during mating season, and this is usually when these spiders are encountered. Males do not live long after reaching maturity, usually dying soon after, or during, mating.

Trapdoor spiders are similar in appearance to fellow mygalomorphs, the funnel-web spiders. Unlike funnel-web spiders, they are not considered life endangering, although the mouse spider, a type of trapdoor, is capable of a very nasty bite. Not all trapdoor species have a trapdoor lid covering their holes, although they all live in burrows. The females have long life spans ranging from 5–20 years, taking several years to reach maturity. Insects are their main prey, but prey will also include other spiders and other small animals.

Black house spiders

Black house spiders, Badumna insignis, are also called window spiders because of the tendency to build their webs around window frames. These untidy, zigzag threaded webs usually have one or two funnel-shaped entrances leading into a tubular retreat, and some people mistakenly think they may be funnel-web spiders. These robust, hairy spiders range from 9mm (male) to 18mm (female) in length, are grey to black in colour, and are found Australia wide.

Black house spiders are timid and bites to humans are rare but may be painful and can cause general symptoms such as nausea, sweating and vomiting. In a few cases necrotic skin lesions have been reported after multiple bites.

These spiders catch a lot of flying insects around the home and garden, but are generally not tolerated well because of their messy webs around windows, eaves and even the mirrors of the family car! Enemies of these spiders include parasitic wasps, birds and the white-tailed spider.

White-tailed spiders

White-tailed spiders, Lampona cylindrata, are common and widespread across Australia. They are not web builders but vagrant hunters and are often seen inside houses, especially on summer evenings, wandering in search of prey. They are medium sized spiders, with cylindrical abdomens, grey to black bodies with stout legs and a white patch at the tip of the abdomen. They feed mainly on other spiders, plucking at their webs to imitate the struggling of an ensnared insect and then seizing the unsuspecting spider when it comes out of its retreat.

White-tailed spider bites typically cause initial burning pain followed by swelling and itchiness at the site. Occasionally, weals or cases of blistering ulceration have been reported and some medical studies suggest that this may be due to a secondary infection of the wound. Sensational media reporting of severe cases of skin ulceration (a condition termed ‘necrotic arachnidism’) has given this spider a fearful reputation it probably doesn’t deserve. Recent studies have monitored the medical outcomes of hundreds of verified white-tailed spider bites and found not a single case of ulceration. It is certainly safe to say that necrotic arachnidism is not a common outcome of a white-tailed spider bite. If they are common in the house, it is a good idea to check bedding before going to bed. Also, check your shoes before putting them on and do not leave clothing on the floor, as these spiders are often found sheltering in such situations.

Daddy long-legs

Daddy long-legs, Pholcus phalangioides, are cosmopolitan spiders and are probably the best known spiders world wide. They are almost always associated with human dwellings, famous for their small, dainty bodies with long legs up to 50mm in length.

These spiders are often found in the house or shed with their thin, tangled webs behind doors or attached to ceilings and upper walls in the corners of rooms. The non-sticky web of the daddy long-legs is really just a retreat for the spider and not designed to catch prey. The moment an insect ventures within striking range of the spider it will race out, bite and tangle up its prey until the struggle quickly ceases.

These spiders are harmless but, quite incorrectly, renowned for being deadly poisonous. Although their venom is quite toxic, their tiny fangs are incapable of penetrating human skin and the venom glands hold so little poison that it renders this distinction as merely mythical.

Huntsman spiders

Huntsman spiders are in the Sparassidae family and are the large ‘hairy scary’ spiders that absolutely terrify people when they scuttle out from behind a curtain or the sun visor in the car. In reality, Australian huntsman spiders are a fascinating group with 13 genera and 94 described species. Many huntsman spiders live socially in large family groups with the mothers showing extraordinary maternal instinct. These large, hairy grey-brown spiders have flattened bodies and are found throughout Australia, preferring to live outside under the bark of trees or under rocks and logs on the ground. They are typically long-legged (females can reach sizes up to 15cm across the legs) with forward facing legs, and are known for their scuttling sideways gait.

These sure-footed and agile spiders are nocturnal and sometimes seen indoors at night, hunting for insects. They have keen eyesight and are good hunters, running down and pouncing on their prey. None of these spiders spin webs of any kind. Although some huntsman spiders can give a painful bite, they are not considered dangerous to humans.

Wolf spiders

There are hundreds of species of wolf spiders in the Lycosa species distributed very widely across Australia through their ability to disperse aerially as spiderlings. They are also known as lawn or garden wolf spiders by some, as this is where we often encounter them. Most wolf spiders are wanderers but some build burrows, either with or without a trapdoor entrance. Species range in size from 1–8cm across the legs and are distinguished from other ground dwelling spiders by their large eyes used for hunting at night. Like huntsman spiders, wolf spiders are highly maternal and we can sometimes see the mother-to-be roaming with her silken egg sac attached to her underside, or marvel at her piggy-backing dozens of her young.

Most wolf spiders are typically drab brown-grey with variegated black or fawn patterns on them. They are not dangerous to humans, although one species can give a painful bite, which has been known to cause blistering skin lesions and infection. For this reason you should consider wearing gloves when gardening.

Garden spider

Garden spiders, Eriophora transmarina, are common across Australia, and can reach 20–24mm in length. They are famed for their large orb (wheel) shaped webs we see in the home garden. Garden spider abdomens have a variety of patterns of colour and shape but two features common to these spiders are the red colouring in the leg joints and their ability to change colour to suit their surroundings. They build their webs at dusk and usually remove all but a single strand in the morning, when they retreat to surrounding shrubbery where their camouflaged bodies are rarely seen. Garden spiders are acutely aware of insect behaviour and when conditions are not favourable for flying insects, no attempt will be made to build a web. When conditions favour flying insects and a meal can be had, they waste no time, weaving a web in about 45 minutes.

These spiders are considered harmless to humans and bites are extremely rare.

Many of us will remember shrieking in horror after blundering through their webs strung across the path on a summer’s night. Disturbed in this manner though, these spiders will usually drop straight to the ground or scurry away and hide.

Unfamiliar pests

The Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA) is on the lookout for animal and plant pests, diseases and weeds that could pose a threat to agriculture and the environment.

If you discover something unfamiliar, please send a photo to the Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS) by email: [email protected] or phone them on Freecall: 1800 084 881.

Please read the sending specimens for identification web article before sending, or bringing in, samples to the Pest and Disease Information Service, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, 6151, WA.