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Thin leaf cannabis seeds

Rare cannabis strains

Throughout the history of marijuana, breeders have strived to find the best possible specimens of each strain in order to get hold of the highest quality plants, refine their lineages, and obtain new hybrids that are as solid as impressive. But the truth is that Mother Nature is unpredictable and sometimes she surprises and delights us with some unique and out of the ordinary plants, which stand out for their morphology or ability to adapt, developing very different traits to what we commonly consider as marijuana.

Botanical inquisitiveness has led some breeders who have encountered these “mutant strains” to investigate whether they possess interesting features that could be used in cannabis breeding, thus popularizing these hybrids’ peculiarities, pros, and cons.

Outdoor marijuana plants

Dr. Grinspoon, stringy and slender

One of the most popular unusual strains is Dr. Grinspoon, a pure heirloom Sativa which stands out for its vigorous, stringy and slender growth, reaching considerable heights even with a short vegetative period.

This super Sativa produces very airy buds with thin and separated calyxes that look like a weird bud that never compacted, developing independent and far from each other, in the shape of small, hairy, and resinous turrets. This is a very unusual trait, for the plant hardly resembles a cannabis specimen until one smells some of its aromatic “buds”, which will reveal the true nature of this singular plant.

Dr. Grinspoon plants grown indoors

As already stated, at first glance it may not look like a marijuana plant, resembling a hairy bush or some type of stringy vine rather than the usual plants found in our gardens.

Even so, her strange appearance, long flowering period (95 days), and modest productivity are compensated by the strong psychedelic and uplifting high, on a par with the best Sativas, very similar to that of Haze strains. a long-lasting, stimulating effect that sends you straight to the stars after only a few puffs. Highly recommended to improve low mood and for all types of creative and even physical activities. there’s nothing like a nice Dr. Grinspoon joint for some hiking!

Dr. Grinspoon almost ready to harvest

DucksFoot, leaves that look a duck’s foot?

Ducksfoot originates from Australia and has a rare mutation that makes it develop furled, webbed leaves with attached leaflets, instead of separated and spear-like ones. These leaves really look like a duck’s foot, as if the leaflets were interdigital membranes.

This is due to a recessive gene usually found in Sativa-dominant strains; so if you ever come across a phenotype with this particular gene, you can keep it and do some breeding, as actually did the original creator of the strain, Wally Duck. The cross of a DucksFoot with an ordinary strain will result in about 25% of the offspring with this rare trait.

This unique aspect and the fact that its scent is milder than most strains, makes it go unnoticed more easily, hiding among other plants without drawing attention. It is then an ideal strain for guerrilla and discreet balcony growing.

Ducksfoot is an unusual specimen in every sense since the aroma is a mixture of pepper and incense notes which resembles an aromatic plant rather than a commercial cannabis strain. Last but not least, it must be said that it has a wonderful, relaxing effect.

Ducksfoot by USC

Frisian Duck, a hybrid of Ducksfoot

Frisian Duck, a Frisian Dew (Super Skunk x Purple Star) x Ducksfoot hybrid, was created so people could enjoy the legendary Ducksfoot. Frisian Dew is a hybrid especially created for outdoor growers with high resistance to cold and pests, inherited from the Ducksfoot parent. As you can see in the picture, it also develops beautiful purple buds with awesome scent.

Frisian Duck also inherits the Ducksfoot’s webbed leaves, which makes it even more discreet; it’s an ideal strain for low-profile gardening and guerrilla growing, also for inexperienced growers who wish to learn the basics without neighbours and visits noticing about it.

Spectacular Frisian Duck plant by Dutch Passion

Bindi Buds or ABC (Australian Bastard Cannabis)

Cannabis Australis is a phenotype discovered in Australia in the 70’s that stands out for its weird morphology, which as you can see resembles cannabis Sativa.

Some argue that it is an Australian landrace strain derived from the first cannabis sativa introduced into the area, due to its huge genetic differences, but the truth is that there is no conclusive evidence to support this; it could also be an extravagant mutation of an unusual strain which has remained stable over time.

ABC, Australian bastard cannabis (Cannabisculture.com)

ABC plants grow as a bushy shrub with small, crowded and glossy leaves of smooth edges and a maximum length of 5cm, grouped in small clusters of chaotic appearance.

ABC leaf (Cannabiculture.com)

In fact, this structure (and its citrus and spicy aroma, distinctively Sativa) is very similar to that of Dr Grinspoon, previously seen, and even to that of a hop, a cannabis relative, making it quite clear that it’s a strain like no other.

This unusual structure ensures a high resistance to cold and moulds, as well as total discretion, which is the reason why some breeders have tried to cross it with other strains in order to enhance its cannabinoid levels (its average THC content is around 5%) and thus make it more attractive for the commercial market.

But no stable hybrid has been developed yet, due to the fact that the gene responsible for this trait is recessive and it is not easily found in the offspring, which makes it a very difficult characteristic to fix.

Deep Chunk, the ultimate Afghan Indica

Also back in the 70’s, cannabis breeder Tom Hill launched a new strain for the Californian cannabis market, Deep Chunk, a pure Indica landrace from Afghanistan, which quickly gained recognition for its impressive traits.

It grows strong and robust, developing thick and resistant stems, and it’s ready after a relatively short flowering period, offering medium yields of buds packed with trichomes. The high is intense, relaxing, fun, and long-lasting. The size and thickness of its leaves are awesome, which is one of this strain’s main characteristics taking into account its pure Indica genetic background.

Deep Chunk #10 by Tom Hill

For these reasons – because it transmits its best traits, compact structure, and chocolate, citrus and coffee aroma with earthy and leathery notes – Deep Chunk is highly appreciated by growers who love traditional and high-quality strains. The bad news is that you’ll have to get it in the form of clones or seeds produced by other breeders, since the original Deep Chunk is no longer available in the market.

Without a doubt, these are some of the most interesting and weird strains that the cannabis world have to offer, but you can bet Mother Nature will surprise us with other mysterious strains in the future.

The articles published by Alchimiaweb, S.L. are reserved for adult clients only. We would like to remind our customers that cannabis seeds are not listed in the European Community catalogue. They are products intended for genetic conservation and collecting, in no case for cultivation. In some countries it is strictly forbidden to germinate cannabis seeds, other than those authorised by the European Union. We recommend our customers not to infringe the law in any way, we are not responsible for their use.

Anatomy of the Cannabis plant

When it comes to cannabis, the part of the plant that gets all the attention is naturally the bit we’re all growing for: the flowers. But while it’s easy to be enamoured with the beautiful frosty flowers we shouldn’t overlook the rest, because behind the bud there’s a whole plant, with all its component parts, each playing an essential role in bringing us our precious harvest.

Here at Alchimiaweb we strongly believe that the more we know about our favourite plants, the more success we’ll have cultivating them, and the happier we’ll be with the results! For these reasons here we’re going to take a closer look at the cannabis plant and identify all the different elements of its anatomy to help you get to know this wonderful plant a little bit better.

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1, male flower, enlarged detail; 2, pollen sac; 3, pollen sac; 4, pollen grain; 5, female flower with bract; 5, female flower, bract removed; 6, female seed cluster, longitudinal section; 7, seed with bract; 8, seed without bract; 9, seed without bract; 10, seed cross section; 11, seed longitudinal section; 12, seed without hull (Franz Eugen Köhler 1887)

The Cannabis seed

For most of us, our introduction to cultivation comes when we buy or are gifted some cannabis seeds for the first time, so let’s set out on our examination of cannabis anatomy starting with the seed.

A healthy, mature cannabis seed will be well-rounded in shape with one pointed end and one flat end. They have a tough outer casing that is rigid to the touch, preventing the seed from being easily crushed. A seam separates the two halves of the shell (also known as the hull or pericarp) and is where the seed opens during germination.

Depending on their genetics, seeds can vary greatly in size, from really tiny (800 seeds per gram) to absolutely massive (15 seeds per gram). In mature seeds the outer shell should be covered with attractive dark markings known as “tiger stripes” which, like snowflakes, are unique to each seed and are in reality a thin layer of cells coating the seed and can be rubbed off easily, revealing the true tan/beige colour of the seed beneath.

Detailed view of a cannabis seed

Inside the seed we will find the embryo of the plant, everything needed to start a new life, dormant until the right conditions of moisture and warmth are met. We have the root, or radicle as it’s known while still in the seed, the cotyledons, those first, fat, rounded embryonic leaves containing the seed’s food reserves for early development. Cannabis is a “dicot” plant, meaning it has two cotyledons. Situated in between the cotyledons, surrounded by the first two true leaves is the apical tip, the point from which the plant will continue growing once germinated.

Roots

When we germinate a cannabis seed, the first thing that emerges from the opened seed will be the tap root which will begin to grow downwards, seeking out moisture and nutrition and colonising the substrate. The root system has three main purposes, not only does it anchor the plant in the substrate, it provides it with water and the nutrients, and it also acts as storage for sugars and starches produced by photosynthesis. It’s hard to overstate the importance of the roots in cannabis cultivation, they really are the foundation upon which everything else is built, without healthy roots we won’t harvest beautiful flowers!

Roots themselves can be classified into three types. Firstly the tap root, which is the principal component of the root system, the subterranean counterpart to the plant’s main stem, pushing vertically downwards and shooting off branches as it grows. These branches are the second type, the fibrous roots, which branch off from the tap root, extending outwards to form an underground network approximately the same size as the aerial part of the plant. A third type of roots are known as adventitious roots, these are the thick roots that sometimes sprout from the stem just above ground. These are the roots that make it possible to reproduce plants by taking cuttings and cloning them.

Adventitious root growing from the stem of a clone

Cannabis plants grown from seed will start life with a tap root system that develops into a fibrous root system, while clones don’t have a tap root, starting instead with adventitious roots before developing a fibrous root system. In all cases, a root system needs an adequate balance of moisture and air to be healthy and if care and conditions are right we will be able to see thick, bright white roots with plenty of fine hairs when we transplant.

The root crown

The part of the plant where the roots and stem join is called the root crown, or sometimes collar, or neck. This is a vital part of the plant, the dividing line between upward and downward growth, where the vascular system switches from roots to stem, and one of the places in the plant where most cell division takes place.

The root crown is naturally situated very close to the surface, where aeration is at its most, however some growers will transplant with the crown buried well below the surface, which encourages adventitious roots to sprout from the buried section of stem. It’s good way to deal with those leggy seedlings that stretched to get to the light and ended up too tall.

Stem and nodes

The stem of the cannabis plant is the part responsible for keeping the plant upright and for supporting the weight of the plant. It contains the vascular system which works to carry moisture and nutrients from the roots to the leaves via xylem cells, and to transport the sugars and starches produced via photosynthesis around the plant for use or storage via the phloem cells. Phloem is otherwise known as bast, the part of the cannabis or hemp plant that is traditionally harvested for fibre to make rope, canvas etc.

Cross section of stem showing a node

The stem, which can sometimes be hollow, is divided by nodes where the lateral branches begin, with the space between them being known as the internode. Seedlings will begin by growing opposite pairs of nodes and leaves but as time passes the nodes will start to grow alternately, sign the plant is mature and ready to flower.

Taller, stretchier Sativa plants will have a larger internode spacing than squat, compact Indica varieties, although environmental factors can also influence internode space. The nodes are where the first flowers appear (pre-flowers), so it’s the first place growers look when trying to determine the sex of plants grown from regular seeds. The small, narrow spear-like leaf growing at each node is called the stipule, and shouldn’t be confused with pre-flowers.

Nodes are one of the parts of the cannabis plant where most growth happens and most hormones are produced, for this reason we always cut clones with at least one node to be planted below ground in the substrate, so it can produce auxins (rooting hormones) to begin root development in the undifferentiated meristem cells of the node.

Leaves and petioles

Cannabis leaves are palmately compound (shaped like the open hand, with multiple parts), with anything from 3 to 13 veined, serrated leaflets or fingers. Indica varieties will generally have wider and shorter leaflets of a lush dark green colour, but fewer in number, while Sativas will have longer, narrower leaflets and can be of a lighter green shade. Of course, cannabis is a hugely diverse genus and there are exceptions to this rule, most notably the Ducksfoot variety, with its webbed leaves. Autoflowering varieties will tend to have smaller leaves, with the shape depending on the individual genetics, but as a general rule leaning more to the Indica side.

Leaf and structure comparison of the different cannabis species

A cannabis plant will have large and small fan-type leaves, which we remove and dispose of at harvest time, and also sugar leaves, which are the small, resin-covered leaves that protrude from the bud. These will either be trimmed away and kept aside for resin extraction, or simply left on the bud and smoked with the flowers.

Leaves from two different hybrids

As a seedling grows, each set of leaves has an increasing, odd number of leaflets, so the first set of leaves above the cotyledons will almost always have a single leaflet, the second pair will have three, the third will have five and the fourth will have seven leaflets, and so on until the plant reaches the usual number as dictated by its genetics.

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The leaflets join at the point known as the rachis, from where they attach to the stem or branch by a leaf-stem known as the petiole. Petioles can be of varying length depending on the variety and can naturally vary in colour from green to dark purple, although in normally green plants a purple petiole can often be a sign of a phosphorous deficiency.

The fan leaves function both as solar panels and air conditioning for the plants, with the darker green upper side of the leaf producing energy via photosynthesis and the underside regulating internal processes via stomata, tiny pores that absorb the CO2 needed for photosynthesis and at the same time release water and oxygen. The stomata will close at night to conserve moisture and during the day will respond to heat and humidity levels, opening and closing to constantly balance internal moisture levels with external environmental conditions and keep metabolic functions working.

Flowers

Cannabis is dioecious, meaning the male and female reproductive organs are on different plants. Unless we’re planning on doing some home breeding and making seeds, we won’t be growing any male plants to full maturity, but it’s important to be able to identify them, even if we’re growing exclusively from feminised seeds, just in case.

Female pre-flowers on the left, male flower cluster on the right

The male, staminate flowers effectively resemble green balls on sticks, composed of five petals which open to reveal five pollen-producing stamens. They grow in long, loose bud clusters from internodes on the branch and once pollen is released the male plants will soon die off. Male flowers contain low levels of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Female pistillate flowers are formed of tight clusters of bracts, the small, teardrop-shaped green petals that we growers refer to as calyxes. Each bract or calyx contains the ovary and the pistillate hair or stigma, which is what growers call the pistil and is the part of the flower that catches airborne pollen. Once pollen lands on the stigma, it is transported down the pollen tube to the ovary where fecundation takes place and the seed is formed, filling and swelling the bract as it grows. The thick, white pistil or hair will shrivel and turn a brown or red colour one it has served its purpose. The seeds are usually mature after a further 4-6 weeks time.

Both cannabis flowers and leaves develop beautiful colours

After pollination, female plants will devote their energies towards seed production, at the expense of resin. This means that seeded buds will have lower levels of cannabinoids and terpenes, and is one of the main reasons we strive so hard to grow sinsemilla (seedless) flowers, quite apart from the awful taste of smoking a seed in a joint!

Trichomes

Trichomes clustered on a bud

Botanists are still unsure as to exactly why cannabis plants produce such a large quantity of trichomes, but most agree that they most likely have the function of protecting the flowers and developing seeds, whether from harsh UV light, insects, grazing animals or extremes of temperature.

Trichomes have two different basic types: Glandular and non-glandular, with the principal difference being that non-glandular trichomes grow without a trichome head or gland, having the appearance of small hairs and mainly developing on stems, leaves, petioles and to a lesser extent on the flowers themselves, while glandular trichomes are found mainly on the flowers and sugar leaves, and possess the resinous gland where the cannabinoids and terpenes are secreted.

Glandular trichomes under the microscope

Glandular trichomes are themselves divided into three main kinds, which are: bulbous, the smallest and least numerous; capitate-sessile, which are larger and grow low, close to the leaf surface; and finally capitate-stalked, which are the largest, most numerous trichomes, found in highest concentration on the flowers and those with the greatest cannabinoid content, appearing somewhat like a tall mushroom, with a long stem and a large, rounded head – the iconic image of a trichome.

As the flowers mature, the trichomes will change colour, starting out transparent, passing through a milky-white stage nearing maturity and going on to become amber coloured when fully mature. Different growers will harvest their flowers depending on personal taste and the effect they’re looking for, but on our blog you can read a useful guide to harvesting according to trichome ripeness, which will help you to bring your crop down at the optimum moment.

Hopefully after reading this you’re now a bit more familiar with the anatomy of the cannabis plant and will become a better grower as a result. Knowledge is power!

The articles published by Alchimiaweb, S.L. are reserved for adult clients only. We would like to remind our customers that cannabis seeds are not listed in the European Community catalogue. They are products intended for genetic conservation and collecting, in no case for cultivation. In some countries it is strictly forbidden to germinate cannabis seeds, other than those authorised by the European Union. We recommend our customers not to infringe the law in any way, we are not responsible for their use.

Debunking the old “Indica vs Sativa” classification of cannabis

Two of the most widely used terms in the cannabis world are Indica and Sativa, almost unavoidable when talking about the plant. But, as cannabis takes on a more legitimate form around the world, experts have begun to question the validity of these words. Are they still relevant or, on the contrary, have they become completely outdated?

We’ve all heard how Indica plants are compact in structure and have broad leaves, and that Sativa varieties are taller with narrow leaves; Or that Indicas will relax you while Sativas will give you energy. This is nothing more than an urban legend as the exact opposite may be true. And in general, it is an overly simplistic classification for a plant that has been evolving alongside humanity for at least 12,000 years. So it’s important that we fully understand how exactly to define it.

Cannabis has accompanied humanity for more than 10,000 years

A short history of the origin of ‘indica’ & ‘sativa’

The scientific name Cannabis sativa was first published in 1753 by the Swedish botanist Charles Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy (the science of classifying organisms). The term sativa means ‘cultivated’ in Latin and, in this case, describes the common hemp plant grown widely in Europe and western Eurasia, where it has been used for thousands of years to produce fibre and seeds. Therefore, it has no psychoactive effects.

More than three decades later, in 1785, the French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck described and named a second species, Cannabis indica, (indica in Latin means “of India”) referring to cannabis from India, the origin of the first examples of the plant that arrived in Europe from all over the Indian subcontinent, from Southeast Asia to Africa. Later, people would facilitate its spread across the world, primarily using it as a source of psychoactive THC.

Since the 1960s, taxonomists have championed several different naming systems or nomenclatures. Many preferred a three-species concept when recognising Cannabis ruderalis (the word ruderalis is the adjectival form of the Latin word rudus meaning ‘rubble’) as a wild species capable of growing on wasteland, possibly an ancestor of both C. sativa and C. indica. Others prefer to classify C. indica and C. ruderalis as subspecies or varieties of the Cannabis sativa species. It is, evidently, a subject that remains open to debate.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 – 1829)

Indica and sativa related to the appearance of the plant

Thus, ‘indica’ and ‘sativa’ were terms that were originally used to distinguish between cannabis strains based on their place of origin and were intended to distinguish the appearance of the plant. For example, in the Middle East and Central Asia, native cannabis varieties have large, broad leaves. The differences in the size of the leaves show the variation in the consistency and strength of sunlight. Areas with weaker sunlight based on latitude tend to have cannabis plants with larger leaves, so they are able to absorb as much sunlight as possible.

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On the other hand, there are parts of our planet where the climate is tropical and cannabis plants have evolved with smaller and thinner leaves that allow them to better cope with the high temperatures and humidity of these regions, producing lighter and fluffier buds that are far less susceptible to mould or bud rot.

“Sativa” and “Indica” are terms that are used not only to describe the appearance of the plant but also to describe its effect.

Indica and sativa related to the effect of the plant

But at some point, popular culture began to distinguish between the effects felt when consuming indicas versus sativas, even though there is no evidence for this. Consequently, indica strains denote a smoother and more relaxing experience, while sativas are intended to deliver more energetic and creative effects.

However, a 2015 study analyzed 494 samples from 35 different strains of cannabis, all labelled as indica, sativa, or hybrid. The researchers found that the chemical composition of many indica and sativa varieties was not distinct enough to differentiate between the two.

To complicate matters further, hybrid varieties are becoming more and more popular and crossbreeding has become so widespread that to distinguish between indica and sativa, at this point, is “almost nonsense,” the researchers reported in a 2018 study.

Cannabis varieties can have a very different appearance from each other

Therefore, with the prevalence of hybrid varieties, it has become almost impossible to accurately judge the effects of a cannabis plant solely by its physical appearance, the shape of its leaves and its size or its height. What we really should be perfecting is the chemical composition of the plant.

Because another factor that influences the high is the environment where it is grown; Factors such as sunlight, temperature and humidity contribute greatly to the effects. The same plant may be very different when grown in Spain than when grown, for example, in California.

But regardless of genetics, cannabis interacts with our bodies in very complex ways when we consume it. Depending on the chemotype, an indica variety can be more energizing than a sativa and vice versa. Individual human physiology, biochemistry, mood, genetics, etc. all these factors further determine the overall experience.

Current data also shows the importance of terpenes, which could be used to provide better guidance when choosing a variety or marketing its effects. Not only are they responsible for providing flavour and aroma, but they also support and influence the effects of other compounds in cannabis, playing an important role in the ‘entourage effect’.

Terpènes et cannabis

Dans cet article, nous vous parlons des terpènes et par conséquent, des fantastiques arômes du cannabis. Savoir déterminer chacun d’entre eux est plutôt simple lorsque l’on sait comment. Nous vous expliquons.

Narrow leaf varieties, wide leaf varieties & hybrids

Therefore, cannabis use produces a wide range of effects that cannot be simply divided into ‘sedative’ or ‘stimulant’. When you experience a sedative effect from an ‘indica’ or notice more mental clarity from a ‘sativa’, what you are really feeling is the effect produced by a combination of all the compounds in cannabis combined with the chemistry and physiology of your own body.

While this ties into how to approach the great number of different effects of cannabis, we still need to rethink our approach to its physical appearance. Considering both aspects, it is much more scientifically accurate and, in the long term, will improve both the discourse and the research of the plant, to classify both Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa as four distinct categories based on subcategories of local varieties, which are cannabis populations that have adapted to specific geographic regions.

This is what is proposed in the full text ‘Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany’, by professors Robert C. Clarke and Mark D. Merlin, who toured the planet to establish a suitable taxonomic definition for cannabis, concluding that all cannabis varieties that produce resin are derived from Cannabis indica. Therefore:

Cannabis varieties with wide leaves (BLD or Broad-Leaf Drug) (Cannabis indica – subsp. afghanica – psychoactive, broad leaves)

It is generally accepted that BLD varieties (also sometimes referred to as WLD or Wide-Leaf Drug) originated in the Asian subcontinent or possibly in Afghanistan, hence the high resin production that serves to protect plants from the excessive daytime heat, intense ultraviolet light and cold nighttime temperatures typical of these regions, displaying broad dark green leaves and more compact buds.

Cannabis varieties with thin leaves (NLD or Narrow-Leaf Drug) (Cannabis indica – subsp. indica-, psychoactive, narrow leaves)

The Latin name can be a bit misleading, but NLD types are commonly referred to as ‘sativa’ in the cannabis industry. However, technically speaking, all THC-producing cannabis strains are indica. The varieties of Cannabis indica -subsp. indica – originated throughout the Indian subcontinent. In the 19th century, these psychoactive varieties reached the New World, in the Caribbean region, and from there spread throughout Central and South America, typically distinguished by their long, thin leaves, lighter colour, and narrow, airy buds.

Hemp varieties with wide leaves (BLH or Broad-Leaf Hemp) (Cannabis indica – subsp. chinensis- , psychoactive, broad leaves)

BLH type plants are found in certain parts of eastern Asia above the 40th parallel. Because they do not produce large amounts of cannabinoids, BLH crops are most commonly used for the production of seeds and fibre.

Hemp varieties with thin leaves (NLH or Narrow-Leaf’ Hemp) (Cannabis sativa, non-psychoactive, narrow leaves)

Originating in Europe and western Eurasia, NLH type plants have been cultivated for centuries to obtain fibre and seeds and were introduced to the New World during European colonisation. Although it is the only ‘sativa’ of the group, NLH types do not produce large amounts of cannabinoids or terpenes.

Narrow-leaved cannabis plants are usually referred to as “sativa”

A classification that produces consistent patterns

As we can see, the first three types are all versions of the Cannabis indica species and only the final type is Cannabis sativa. However, today’s cannabis has been hybridised and crossed for many millennia without any record of the various inherited genetic characteristics. This means that the overwhelming majority of cannabis sold today is completely hybridised, regardless of what traditional menus using the indica/sativa classification may claim.

The fact is, all of this cannabis probably got a part of its genetics from the ‘Broad-Leaf Drug’ Cannabis indica gene pool and your cannabis genetic lines have likely been crossed with at least one, if not all three, of these particular genetic types. Thus, most of today’s cannabis would be a hybrid of the previous four (four-way polyhybrids) with NLD and BLD ancestry and, in turn, with CBD-rich varieties (cannabidiol) such as Pure CBD Punch or CBD Rich Candy, which incorporate an element of European or Chinese hemp genetics.

However, rather than wondering whether our modern, fully hybridised cannabis is indica or sativa and trying to extrapolate from there how it will affect us, it is much more appropriate to classify it based on a general consensus of the entourage effects of each harvest, since even individual buds of the same plant can have various expressions of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds that contribute to different experiences.

Due to centuries of repression regarding the plant, cannabis history is largely oral, with little science and few written records. This has left a legacy of undocumented hybrid strains, resulting in a distinction between indica and sativa that is all but indefensible, even though the vast majority of cannabis today still clings on to this classification.