Weeds With Black Seed Pods

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Photos and descriptions of Black medic Hi all! I’m a newbie gardener who has inherited a jungle of a garden in my recent house move. Do you have prostrate weeds with small yellow, clover-like flowers in your garden beds or lawn? This leguminous plant from Europe and temperate Asia, commonly called black medic, is also called yellow trefoil, black clover and hop medic. Read more about this annual weed and how to deal with it in this article…

Black medic ( Medicago lupulina )

Black medic is a low-growing summer or winter annual broadleaf plant that sometimes behaves as a short-lived perennial. It is found throughout California, except for deserts, to about 8200 feet (2500 m). Black medic is common in turf and inhabits agricultural land and disturbed areas. It is good forage for livestock and sometimes is cultivated for pasture or as a cover crop. However, black medic seed is a common contaminant in commercial alfalfa and clover seed.

Habitat

Grassland, pastures, vegetable and agronomic crop fields (especially alfalfa), orchards, vineyards, gardens, lawns, roadsides and other disturbed, unmanaged places.

Seedling

Cotyledons (seed leaves) are oblong, smooth, and about 1/6 to 1/3 of an inch (4–9 mm) long. The first leaf is oval and broader than it is long, with a smooth edge. True leaves are fully subdivided consisting of three egg-shaped leaflets with toothed edges and resemble leaves of the mature plant.

Mature plant

The main stem branches near the base. Stems grow prostrate or prostrate with tips pointing upward and can reach 1-1/3 feet (40 cm) long. The plant is hairy, especially the stems. Leaves are alternate to one another along the stem. Leaves are fully divided into three egg- to heart-shaped leaflets with somewhat toothed edges. Leaflets are about 2/5 to 7/10 of an inch (1–2 cm) long and finely toothed at the tip, which often bares a tiny, slender tooth. The stalk of the middle leaflet is longer than those of the lateral leaflets. Black medic is distinguished from California burclover by its hairy leaves; the latter has nearly hairless leaves. Also the small leaflike structures (stipules) at the bases of leaf stalks are not deeply lobed and have smooth edges or a few shallow teeth in black medic, whereas those of California burclover are deeply lobed, slender and curved.

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Flowers

Flowers bloom from April through July. Usually ten to twenty yellow, slender, pealike flowers densely cluster to form a rounded flower head.

Fruits

Fruits are kidney-shaped pods about 1/12 to 1/8 of an inch (2–3 mm) long, strongly veined, and black at maturity. Each pod contains one seed, but does not open to release seeds.

Seeds

Seeds are oval to barely kidney shaped, smooth, yellowish to olive green, about 1/12 of an inch (2 mm) long, and have a small sharp point on the concave side.

Weed with black pods

Hi all! I’m a newbie gardener who has inherited a jungle of a garden in my recent house move. Please could anyone help me identify a weed with black pods which has spread rapidly in my front garden? The pods are shooting seeds across the plant beds so it’s growing quickly. I am currently trying to get rid of it but worried that it will continue to come back as I cannot identify a root. Any help will be greatly appreciated!

Posts

Lots of plants have black pods. Can you do a photo, or a fuller description, shape of leaves, colour of flowers, height, any else about it

I have photos but not sure how to upload it to this forum? It has long arching stalks that are tangled between all the other plants and small (elongated oval) leaves.

Black Medic, Medicago lupulina

A dense infestation of black medic.
Black medic, Medicago lupulina, is a common, prostrate broadleaf weed that is found throughout the US and Southern Canada. Native to Europe and temperate Asia, this member of the legume family (Fabaceae) has a few other common names including yellow trefoil, black clover and hop medic. Its is most often found as a weed in in dry, sunny areas in turf and waste ground, such as along roadsides and railroads, but it can be a nuisance in gardens and fields as well. Black medic can be an indication of low soil nitrogen in lawns as it outcompetes weak grass. Black medic and white clover grow in similar sites and are often found growing together in turf. Although it is classified as a cool season summer annual, in mild winters some plants may survive to act as a perennial. It spreads easily by seed and will form large colonies if left undisturbed.
A young black medic plant.
Black medic produces a long taproot that grows deeply into most soils. Several trailing, slightly hairy stems grow out from the base. The plant grows close to the ground, spreading up to 2 feet, but does not root along the stems. Like other members of the legume family, black medic has a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria that form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.
A black medic seedling (L) and trifoliate leaf (R).
The tiny seedlings resemble other clovers, with elongate, dark green cotyledons and rounded first leaf. All other leaves are trifoliate. The plant’s dark green leaves are similar to clover leaves, with three oval leaftlets. Each ½-¾” long leaflet has a small spur or tooth at the tip, toothed margins, and prominent, parallel veins. The center leaflet protrudes slightly on an extended petiole. This characteristic, along with the small projecting tip at the leaflet apex and toothed margins, help to distinguish black medic from other trifoliate legumes. The leaves are produced alternately along the stems. There is a pair of stipules (small, leaflike appendages) where each petiole joins the main stem.
Black medic flower.
The small, bright yellow flowers are produced from the leaf axils. Each inflorescence is a compact, rounded to slightly elongated cluster of 10-50 tiny flowers. Flowers can be found throughout the growing season, although individual plants stop blooming once seeds are set. Honeybees and other bees visit the flowers. The fruits that form after pollination look like small kidneys arranged in clusters. The coiled seed pods turn black when ripe. Each seed pod contains a single gold or brown seed.
In lawns, black medic can be managed through good turf management practices that encourage a dense stand of turf (high mowing, proper fertilization and irrigation), making it difficult for black medic to persist. As black medic often grows where some soil compaction has occurred, such as along curbs and sidewalks, reducing compaction will also help.
Black medic fruits (L) and ripe seed pods (R).
Black medic produces viable seed under normal mowing conditions which can persist in the soil for years, so it is important to control this weed before flowering and seed set. Individual plants can be hand pulled. Even larger plants are easy to pull out, particularly after rain has softened the soil. However, for large areas or dense infestations, a broadleaf herbicide can be applied to actively growing plants during the seedling to flower growth stage. Chemical controls are best applied from late spring through early summer and again from early through mid-autumn. Read and follow label directions carefully.
– Susan Mahr, University of Wisconsin – Madison

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