It is crucial to transplant marijuana plants at the right time. It is also crucial to do it correctly. Do either wrong, and you can do a lot of damage… As cannabis plants get bigger they need to be moved into bigger containers to allow their roots to expand, so they can thrive. Read more on how to transplant marijuana. On many occasions, transplanting your cannabis is crucial to achieve the best possible yields. However, it’s natural to have doubts, especially in rel
Transplanting marijuana plants
Transplanting marijuana plants can be one of the trickiest parts of growing cannabis. It may seem overwhelming, but when properly researched it can be done with ease by just about anyone.
About transplanting marijuana plants
Once your plants have established a stable root system, they are ready for a period of major foliage growth.
So what makes transplanting cannabis so important? What would even happen if you didn’t do it? In this article, we will answer those questions, and will dive into the following topics:
If you don’t transplant your plants in time they might get rootbound. Rootbound means that the roots have grown all the way around the edges and bottom of the container because it is nog big enough. Your plant will not grow anymore until you transplant it to a larger container.
The following symptoms are signs that your plant is rootbound:
- Stunted Growth
- Smaller and slower bud production
- Easy to burn with low % nutrient solution mixtures
- Red stems
Roots have wrapped around the edges and growing upwards. Classic signs of a rootbound plant. Image from 420mag
The right time to transplant your cannabis plants is when they have an established, sturdy root system in place. This is the case when the roots grow out of the bottom of the pot. The plant is ready to focus its energy on vegetative growth now, so it needs to be moved to a larger container.
Note: Marijuana plants need around 2 gallons of soil for each foot of growth.
You will need to educate yourself about how to do this properly, since making even a small mistake during the process could have a devastating effect. You will also have to carefully choose where you are going to put your cannabis plants permanently to live out their adult lives.
Transplanting cannabis plants at this stage is always necessary, regardless of how you sprouted your plants to begin with. They simply cannot thrive if they are grown in containers for their whole lives, so you cannot avoid the transplantation process. The best way to deal with this is through research and planning.
So what could happen if you make a mistake while transplanting your cannabis plants? Your plants could go into shock, which might cause their leaves to turn yellow and then wither, finally dying and dropping off the plant altogether. In some more serious cases, the plant itself could actually die from the trauma.
While risky, transplanting your plants will have an overwhelmingly positive effect (when done responsibly). It will help speed up the maturing process of the plant while simultaneously requiring even less hands-on care from you as the grower. In summary, it’s well worth the risk and hassle in the end.
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Indoor or outdoor transplanting?
Before beginning the transplanting process, you will first need to make some decisions about your permanent grow site. The location is everything, as it will determine your cannabis plants’ growing environment (and, therefore, their rate of success) as well as your own security.
If you want more control over the environment in which your plants are growing, you may be interested in setting up a permanent grow site indoors. With this method, you can grow all your plants in larger separate containers of some sort (check these containers).
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This can be a great way to ensure the health of your plants since you would control every aspect of their lives. On the other hand, growing your cannabis plants indoors will also require you to use a lot more money, time, and effort. Whether it is light, food, water, temperature or ventilation, you will have to provide it yourself.
For growers on a budget or who prefer a more natural method of growing, setting up a grow site outdoors might make the most sense. It costs much less in both money and effort.
That being said, with this method it is even more important to choose the right grow site for your plants, since it will have a significant effect on both the environment around your plants, as well as your own personal security. It will need to be a safe place with easy access, where you can ensure safety for both yourself and your cannabis plants.
When to transplant
The basic idea behind transplanting at a certain time is to do it when your plants’ roots have reached as far as they can grow within the constraints of their container. Roots actually tend to grow further and faster when they are enclosed in a container; it’s almost as if they are eager to reach open space as soon as possible.
Strangely enough, roots that are already planted straight into the ground do not grow with the same amount of urgency. So what happens if you leave your plants in a container for too long? The answer is simple: they’ll just stop growing altogether.
Containers are not the only thing guilty of causing such a response in the plant. Peat plugs can do the same thing since their mesh perimeter usually acts as a hindrance to the roots, and they stop growing as if they were contained in a plastic pot. This will cause them to stop growing as well.
Once your cannabis plants have sprouted, two leaves that are oblong in shape will start to be visible. These are called cotyledons and they come out from the one tiny stem that will pop up from the soil. They don’t resemble the easily recognized marijuana leaves, but after just a few days they will drop off and normal marijuana leaves will emerge. This shows you that your plants are beginning their seedling phase of life.
Plants in this phase are still relatively small in size, but their roots will begin to grow and develop into a proper root system. This system, though nicely developed, is still quite fragile.
You cannot yet move your plants while they are in their seedling phase, but do ensure that they have plenty of light and water (or just moisture in the soil). The seedling phase can be between two and six weeks long.
So how can you identify the time when your plants are ready for transplantation?
Doing it too early would be devastating for your tender seedlings, so you must act with caution. Once you suddenly are seeing faster growth of leaves as well as a firmer stem. You can test the firmness of the stem by grabbing it with your hand (gently) without doing any damage to it. If these things are happening to your young plants, they have officially entered the vegetative growth stage of their life.
You can, of course, begin the growing season a bit earlier by using peat plugs. This is ideal for growers who are located in climates where the growing season is naturally shorter.
If you do go with peat plugs, make sure you are always aware of the mesh perimeters and whether root tendrils are emerging from underneath them. As soon as you see this you will need to transplant the seedlings into a bigger container or else into the ground outdoors. If you don’t, the growth of your plant could remain stunted forever.
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How to transplant
The first thing you need to do when transplanting your plants to a new, permanent location is to choose a spot for them. There are three types of locations that you can choose between.
The first one is an indoor location that can be accessed with ease but is not easily noticed by other people. A second option would be to move your plants outdoors, where many of the valuable resources they need come at no cost to you. The third option is a sort of indoor-outdoor hybrid: you can move your plants to larger containers, but in turn, move these containers outdoors temporarily.
During the first 3 weeks of flowering root-binding can seriously decrease your yield. The buds and leaves wont continue to grow because the plant cant grow new roots to support them.
If you are most concerned about the discovery of your plants, the third option might be for you because it means that you will be able to quickly relocate your crop in case of detection. It also works well for moving your plants away from pests.
Out of the three options, moving your plants from one container to another is most likely the simplest and most straightforward option available to you.
No matter what option you choose to go with, there are a few key factors to your successful transplantation. First and most obviously, you need to make sure that new soil (whether in the ground or in containers) is fully prepared before you begin the transplantation process.
If you are moving the plants into new pots, make sure that each pot is 4 gallons at the very smallest if it’s their permanent container. If you are going to move your plants to an outdoor location, simply dig a hole that is a few inches greater in size than the pots that your plants have been living in thus far. Make sure to have piles of dug up soil around the hole as well, so that you can push it back in once you have completed the move.
You should actually keep the plants in the soil that they have already been growing since it will reduce the amount of shock that it undergoes, and will instead ease your plant into its new environment. If you have grown your plants within a closet until now, they are especially susceptible to shock, so be particularly cautious.
The next factor that you need to pay attention to is the condition of the soil that your plants are currently living in. It needs to be moist but not wet, and not dry enough to crumble. The most important thing is that your soil sticks together during the transplantation, keeping the shape of its original container (wiki on transplanting).
The process is simple. Put the palm of your hand on the soil in its original pot, keeping the plant’s stem between two of your middle fingers. Your other hand should be beneath the plant. Using both hands, smoothly flip the pot upside-down, putting the full contents and weight of the plant and its soil into your hand that’s holding the stalk of the plant.
Then put away the container, as you will no longer be needing it, and put your hand back on the bottom of the contents, where you should be able to see the white tendrils of the roots. You then put the whole thing into one of the holes you have already dug in the ground.
Do not panic if large pieces of soil fall from the roots of the plant. Your only priority is getting the plant’s roots back underground and covered completely with soil. With a peat plug, the mesh surrounding your plant’s roots should be pulled off and discarded since your plant will no longer be engulfed by water.
Once you have pushed all the soil onto plant’s roots, make sure to give those roots plenty of water. Use up a full gallon that has added plant food.
The last step is simply to cover up the soil that has been exposed to natural debris and leaves that are already at this location. This will both slow down the evaporation of the water you just poured, as well as camouflage your garden from unexpected discovery.
Once the plant is fully grown you will need to start thinking about flowering and harvest time. Our free little Harvest Guide will help you determine the best moment to cut your plants.
How and when to transplant cannabis plants
Transplanting is the process of “re-homing” a cannabis plant, or moving a plant into a bigger pot with more soil as it grows bigger.
Growers typically start off the cannabis growing process by planting many seeds in small pots because they don’t know if all of them will sprout—or germinate—and they don’t know if all of them will be female.
Only female cannabis plants produce buds, so if you start growing from regular seeds, you will have to sex them out and discard the males.
Why is transplanting marijuana plants important?
Transplanting gives a marijuana plant’s root system more space to spread out, allowing the plant to grow healthy and strong and to flourish.
When roots become cramped and can’t spread out they can get tangled and become “rootbound”—this will effective choke the plant, leading to a stunted, sickly plant, and can even kill it. A healthy root system will lead to a healthy weed plant.
A plant’s container will determine how much the roots can stretch out, and therefore how big your plant will get. A container that’s too small will stunt it.
You don’t want to plant a seed in a giant pot because you could potentially waste soil if the seed doesn’t make it. Also, if growing weed outdoors, it’s hard to plan out a garden and where to put your seeds in the ground if some seeds don’t make it.
Most weed growers start seeds in small 4-inch or 1-gallon pots when germinating.
For the seeds that do make it, they will need bigger homes after several weeks of growing and will need to be transplanted either into a bigger pot or directly into the ground.
When planting into the ground, make sure not to crowd your plants so their roots don’t run into each other.
The symptoms of a rootbound plant include:
- Flimsy new growth
- Stunted flower production
- Stem discoloration (reddening)
- Nutrient sensitivity
A rootbound plant may also appear under-watered. If a plant requires watering more than once a day, it may need to get transplanted.
When to transplant marijuana
Check out Johanna’s full video series on how to grow weed on Leafly’s YouTube .
Most marijuana plants go through 1-2 transplants during their life but could have more. As an example, transplanting can happen from:
- First container (1-gallon) to second container (2-gallon): 4-8 weeks after seed germination
- Second container (2-gallon) to third container (5-gallon): transplant 8-12 weeks later, or 2 weeks before flowering
Some growers may only transplant once: using the example above, from a 1-gallon to a 5-gallon container, skipping the 2-gallon. And depending on how big you want your weed plants to get, you may transplant into bigger pots than what’s listed above.
The same goes for transplanting outside, in the ground—you can go straight from the first pot into the ground, but it depends on when you transplant and your local climate and weather.
Here are some indicators that your cannabis is ready for a new container.
Number of leaves
Young plants sowed in small containers are usually ready to be transplanted after they’ve sprouted 4-5 sets of leaves, but keep in mind this may vary from strain to strain.
Check the drainage holes at the bottom of the container—a plant should have a healthy and visibly white root system. If roots are growing out of the holes, it’s time to transplant.
Any discoloration or darkening may indicate the plant has become rootbound and a transplant should take place immediately.
End of vegetative stage
A weed plant should be in its final pot or in the ground with plenty of room for its roots before it enters the flowering stage. During flowering, a plant will increase in both size and volume, as the plant itself continues to grow and as buds develop. It will require a substantial amount of space for root development.
How much space does a marijuana plant need?
|Plant height (inches)||Pot size|
|0-6″||4-inch (16 oz.)|
When transplanting cannabis, give the plant at least double the space of its previous container. This reduces the number of times you need to transplant and minimizes the risk of transplant shock, which may occur when a plant experiences extreme stress from root disturbance.
For example, you could go from a 1-gallon to a 2-gallon to a 5-gallon, or from a 2-gallon to a 5-gallon to a 10-gallon.
Medium-sized indoor cannabis plants tend to be fine in 5-gallon containers as a finishing pot. Large outdoor plants may require much bigger containers to reach their behemoth potential, sometimes up to 10- or 20-gallon pots.
When in doubt, always opt for slightly more space than needed. A plant tends to require 2 gallons of soil for every 12 inches of growth it achieves during the vegetative stage. Knowing the potential height of the strain you’re growing is helpful.
Why not start in the largest pot for your marijuana plant?
Growers typically transplant weed plants 1-3 times, moving plants to bigger pots gradually as they get bigger.
If a plant is put in too big of a pot, the roots won’t stretch out that much and won’t soak up as much water. This can cause water to sit in the pot for a long time, waterlogging the plant and leading to root rot.
You can transplant into the largest pot for your weed plant to avoid multiple transplants, but be careful not to water all of the soil—only water around the stalk of the plant where the young roots are.
How to transplant marijuana
Check out Johanna’s full video series on how to grow weed on Leafly’s YouTube .
The process of transplanting weed does not come without risk. Transplant shock can be incredibly detrimental to the growth and development of a cannabis plant, and can even kill it. However, through proper execution, the process of transplanting will benefit the plant and lead to stronger root development and healthier flower production.
First transplant of a cannabis plant
Young cannabis plants should start in a 4-inch or 1-gallon pot. This starting pot should be adequate for a few weeks before transplanting is needed.
Again, the first transplanting should occur after the seedling has sprouted its 4th or 5th set of leaves. To transplant:
- Wash your hands and/or wear gloves to prevent contamination of the delicate roots, and keep the surroundings as sanitary as possible.
- Give the plant a light sprinkling of water to help minimize shock; don’t drench it, as the soil will be difficult to work with.
- Fill the receiving pot with soil, allowing enough space for the new plant.
- Avoid overpacking the soil during and after transplanting—this can compromise drainage and damage the root system.
- Do not disturb or damage the roots when transplanting; the first transplanting poses the greatest risk for shock, which can occur from root damage and agitation.
- Avoid intense light when transplanting; this will help prevent transplant shock as well.
- Fully water in the plant once it’s in its new home.
Additional transplanting of cannabis plants
You may need to transplant your weed plant a second or third time to maximize its growing potential. Always monitor plants for symptoms of distress or overcrowded roots.
To do so, follow the steps above, and make sure the new container is at least twice as big as the old one, if not bigger.
The finishing container is the final home of a plant until it’s harvested. This will be the largest container for a plant, and you always want to transplant into this pot 1-2 weeks before the flowering stage—you don’t want to disturb a plant while it’s flowering.
Keep in mind that large plants may require stakes or other support to avoid structural damage after transplanting.
When to transplant cannabis and how to do it
Whether in an outdoor indoor cultivation, transplanting cannabis is a sensitive phase in the life of your plants, which need enough space to develop an extensive root system in order to reach their full potential. A plant with little room for its roots will never perform as well as another with a well-developed root ball! For this reason, it’s a very important moment for the plant growth, and you must transplant your marijuana at the right time and into the right pots.
Today we are going to take a closer look into this operation, which must be carried out with utmost care in order to minimize the stress caused to the plant. If you do it right, you will be able to make the most of the available space, save substrate and nutrients, reduce the risk of fungi, accelerate plant development, and obtain maximum yields. It’s worth trying, don’t you think? Let’s do it!
Healthy roots need some basic care
Why transplant your cannabis?
In nature, cannabis seeds germinate and rise directly from the ground after winter; these plants usually grow without any restrictions in regards to space for their roots, which can freely develop in all directions. This way, in addition to being able to better withstand the lack of irrigation, the plants grow and flower unrestricted, potentially reaching very big heights and yields with just some basic care.
However, when growing in pots you are limiting the space available for their roots, which naturally affects the plant’s overall development, both in the aerial part and the root system. Unsurprisingly, a plant cultivated in a small pot until harvest won’t yield as much as another plant that has plenty of room to develop a healthy root system, since the link between the size of the pot and the size of the plant is quite clear; but, why not germinate the seeds directly in large containers? Why keep changing pots periodically?
As we have already mentioned, if you do it right, you’ll be able to enjoy a number of benefits, among them:
You can save space, nutrients and substrate: when starting you cannabis grow, you don’t need large pots or huge amounts of soil. A straightforward 1L (or even smaller) container is more than enough for the first stage of your plant’s life, until it develops 3-4 sets of leaves. As you won’t need so much substrate or nutrients as with larger pots, the savings are obvious. Also, during this first phase, you probably won’t need much space or light, and certainly much less than during the vegetative and flowering phases, or if you start growing in a big pot and in a much larger cultivation area.
When growing in smaller pots you’ll save space, substrate and nutrients
Growing speed: when cultivating cannabis in a relatively small pot, you need to water your plant more often than with larger pots. When the dry substrate/wet substrate cycle is repeated more often, it results in a phenomenon similar to hydroponic cultivation: the more you water a plant, the faster it grows. It’s a matter of maximising this period until the transplant becomes necessary for the reasons we’ll see later on.
Lower risk of pathogenic fungi: imagine you sow marijuana in an 11L pot; if you moisten the whole substrate, it will be wet for several days, and given there are hardly any roots to absorb the moisture, it will take a long time to dry. This – especially when over-watering – can result in an increased risk of the roots developing pathogenic fungi, something that every cultivator would want to avoid at all costs.
Better performance: on the one hand, if you transplant your cannabis at the right moment using the right type of pot (basically, big enough for the plant you are growing), you’ll maximize the plant’s production. On the other hand, and as we have seen, when speeding up the process, you will save a few days at the end of the cultivation period, which will also improve the setup.
The same clone of the previous photo a few days after the transplant
How many transplants do cannabis need and when to carry them out?
Generally speaking, a marijuana plant is subjected to 2-3 transplants throughout its life cycle. A classic example of indoor cultivation would be a 1-2L pot followed by a 4L pot, and a final 7-10L pot. This could vary depending on the cultivation method and the grower needs and preferences, as it won’t be the same using the SOG than the SCROG techniques! Larger pots are usually used outdoors, where you can begin with a 3-4L pot followed by a 10-15L pot, and end with a final container of your chosen size (the larger the latter, the sooner you’ll have to perform the last transplant, so the plant has time to adapt and develop the maximum amount of roots before flowering).
In regards to the best moment to transplant cannabis, several indicators will let you know the time is right:
- Roots condition: when the roots start filling the pot’s drainage holes (and even sticking out through them), this is a symptom that they need more room to continue expanding.
- Plant size and structure: in the case of a poor or non-existent horizontal growth (lateral branches), it could be necessary to move the plant to a larger container. And the same applies when the plant begins to stretch; it’s very likely that it needs more space for the roots.
- Irrigation: when the plant has colonized all the substrate with its roots, it could barely retain moisture, so you should water it more often (every day or even several times a day). This is a clear sign that your marijuana needs transplanting into a pot with a bigger amount of substrate.
All these symptoms can overlap and take place simultaneously, something that is very common. If you monitor any of them, you’ll know whether the other signs are also present, which would confirm 100% the need of transplanting. But. how do you transplant your cannabis causing minimal stress to your plants? Which pots are most suitable? We explain this below!
This plant is beginning to need transplanting
As you know, the market provides plant pots of many types and sizes, from small containers for germination to large receptacles with a volume of hundreds of litres. As a guide, we propose the following pot sizes depending on the chosen technique:
Depending on the chosen cultivation method, the size of the final container can differ greatly. Here are some examples:
- SOG: 0.5L pot, followed by 1.65L pot, and a final 3.25L pot. Remember that the purpose of this method is to grow many small-sized plants with a single main central cola.
- SCROG: in this case, you can start with a 1.65L pot, followed by a 3.4L pot, and depending on the number of plants, a final 10-20L pot. Here we are aiming for a few large plants.
- Standard cultivation: many growers use a mixed technique, with more plants than in SCROG but less than in SOG. You can start with a 1L pot, move to a 2.5L pot, and conclude with a 4-7 litres container; again, depending on the number of plants you are growing.
Depending on the cultivation method, you can choose a different type of container
Similar to indoor cultivation, the pot size will also have a strong impact on the dimensions and production of the final plant. As we have seen, outdoor cultivations use larger pots than indoor grows from the beginning, as the vegetative period is much longer than when cultivating under artificial lights. For this reason, outdoor plants sometimes need more transplants, especially during the early stages of the vegetative period.
Either way, you need to apply the same criteria to determine whether the transplants are necessary or not, trying not to delay the right moment so the plant’s growth rate does not drop. It may also happen that after several transplants you’ll end up growing on the ground. In this case, we recommend you to perform the last transplant as soon as possible, in order to achieve maximum root growth (just like when using a final pot of more than 60-70L). To accelerate this process, and especially when growing on the ground or reusing a substrate, adding microbial life can greatly help with root growth.
How to transplant cannabis
Let’s have a look now at how you can transplant cannabis causing the least possible stress to your plants. Remember that, on the one hand, you are placing your plant in a new location with more room and nutrients, but on the other hand, you are causing stress by tampering with it and taking it out of its old “habitat”. Ideally, you should water it 1 or 2 days before performing the transplant; if the substrate is too dry, it could come apart when extracting the root ball, whereas – similarly – if it’s too wet, it could crumble. You need to achieve a medium humidity level.
This plant will need a transplant in a few days Remove the old pot place the plant and fill with substrate Ready for some water!
A great trick to cause minimal stress is to proceed as follows: fill the new pot with soil until when placing the old pot on top, there are still 2-3cm of the new container above the plant. Leave the old pot in the substrate and continue filling the new one until it’s completely covered, as if you’d wanted to bury the old one. Water the new container’s substrate, and carefully remove the old pot, so there’s a hole in the substrate which is a “mould” of the plant’s root ball. The only thing left to do is carefully remove the plant from its old container and place its root ball in the hole you made in the substrate. Cover everything with 1-2cm of soil and water a little more. You’re ready!
Usually after each transplant, root stimulators are used to maximize root growth and promote the plant continuous development. As we have pointed out, you can also use microbial life, such as beneficial bacteria or fungi, to speed up this process.
And here we end our article on how, when and why to perform a transplant. As you can see, if it’s done at the right moment and in the right way, the final yield can increase considerably. Don’t hesitate to share your transplant tips and techniques with us.